Foregut Exclusion Enhances Incretin and Insulin Secretion After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

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Patients with type 2 diabetes experience resolution of hyperglycemia within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This is attributed, in part, to enhanced secretion of hindgut factors following exclusion of the gastric remnant and proximal intestine during surgery. However, evidence of the mechanisms of remission remain limited due to the challenges of metabolic evaluation during the early post-operative period. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of foregut exclusion in the resolution of type 2 diabetes after RYGB.Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=15) undergoing RYGB had a gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placed in their gastric remnant at time of surgery. Patients were randomized to receive a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) via oral or G-tube feeding immediately prior to and two weeks after surgery in a repeated measures cross-over design. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, incretin responses, and indices of meal-stimulated insulin secretion and sensitivity were determined.Body weight, fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin, and circulating lipids were significantly decreased at two weeks after surgery. The glucose response to feeding was reduced expressed as a function of total area but not after adjustment for the reduction in fasting glucose. Oral feeding significantly enhanced insulin and incretin secretion after RYGB, which was entirely ablated by G-tube feeding.Foregut exclusion accounts for the rise in incretin and insulin secretion but may not fully explain the early improvements in glucose metabolism after RYGB surgery.

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Authors: John P Kirwan, Christopher L Axelrod, Emily L Kullman, Steven K Malin, Wagner S Dantas, Kathryn Pergola, Juan Pablo Del Rincon, Stacy A Brethauer, Sangeeta R Kashyap, Philip R Schauer