Fecal Microbiota Transplant Decreases Mortality in Patients with Refractory Severe or Fulminant Clostridioides difficile Infection.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recommended for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). FMT cures nearly 80% of patients with severe or fulminant CDI (SFCDI) when utilized in a sequential manner. We compared outcomes of hospitalized patients before and after implementation of an FMT program for SFCDI and investigated whether the changes could be directly attributed to the FMT program.We performed a retrospective analysis of characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for SFCDI (430 hospitalizations) at a single center, from January 2009 through December 2016. We performed subgroup analyses of 199 patients with fulminant CDI and 110 patients with refractory SFCDI (no improvement after 5 or more days of maximal anti-CDI antibiotic therapy). We compared CDI-related mortality within 30 days of hospitalization, CDI-related colectomy, length of hospital stay, and readmission to the hospital within 30 days before (2009-2012) vs after (2013-2016) implementation of the inpatient FMT program.CDI-related mortality and colectomy were lower after implementation of the FMT program. Overall, CDI-related mortality was 10.2% before the FMT program was implemented vs 4.4% after (P=.02). For patients with fulminant CDI, CDI-related mortality was 21.3% before the FMT program was implemented vs 9.1% after (P=.015). For patients with refractory SFCDI, CDI-related mortality was 43.2% before the FMT program vs 12.1% after (P < .001). The FMT program significantly reduced CDI-related colectomy in patients with SFCDI (6.8% before vs 2.7% after; P=.041), in patients with fulminant CDI (15.7% before vs 5.5% after; P=.017), and patients with refractory SFCDI (31.8% vs 7.6%; P = .001). The effect of FMT program implementation on CDI-related mortality remained significant for patients with refractory SFCDI after we accounted for the underlying secular trend (odds ratio, 0.09 for level change; P=.023).An FMT program significantly decreased CDI-related mortality among patients hospitalized with refractory SFCDI.