Fasting glucose, bone area and bone mineral density: a Mendelian randomisation study.

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Observational studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose levels are associated with a greater risk for hip fracture, smaller bone area and higher bone mineral density (BMD). However, these findings may be biased by residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomisation (MR) utilises genetic variants as instruments for exposures in an attempt to address these biases. Thus, we implemented MR to determine whether fasting glucose levels in individuals without diabetes are causally associated with bone area and BMD at the total hip.We selected 35 SNPs strongly associated with fasting glucose (p 

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Authors: Adam Mitchell, Susanna C Larsson, Tove Fall, Håkan Melhus, Karl Michaëlsson, Liisa Byberg