Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Tissue Inhibitors in Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyps: Etiopathogenesis and Recurrence.
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa and it includes, as comorbidities, anatomic and morphologic alterations, allergic rhinitis, and immunologic diseases. We investigated matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) concentration in different etiopathogenetical groups of patients with nasal polyposis (NP) in relation to recurrence after sinonasal surgery. The study group consisted of 45 patients with NP (those with allergic rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis and asthma or nonallergic rhinitis, and obstruction of osteomeatal complex [OMC]) who underwent endonasal sinus surgery. We also collected 10 patients who underwent septoplasty as control. Immunohistochemistry of nasal mucosa fragments, Western blotting, and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed increased MMPs levels (MMP-9 more than MMP-2 and MMP-7) and decreased tissue inhibitors of MMPs levels (TIMP-1 less than TIMP-2), in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps compared with control group, in particular in patients with nonallergic rhinitis and asthma compared to those with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis and obstruction of OMC. We observed a higher risk of recurrence in patients with nonallergic rhinitis and asthma than in those with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis and obstruction of OMC after 36 months from surgery. In this research, we evaluated pathogenesis of NP related to MMPs and their inhibitors concentrations in polypoid tissue.