Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine.

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One of the major side effects of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in a group of patients who have Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinopathy based on Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) with a group who do not have retinopathy.This is a Cross-Sectional Study. In this study, patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who had been taking Hydroxychloroquine for at least 7 years were included. MfERG and OCTA imaging were performed for all patients. Patients were divided into Normal mfERG and Abnormal mfERG groups based on mfERG results. OCTA parameters were studied in these two groups.Sixty-one patients (61 eyes) were included. Forty-one patients had SLE and 20 patients had RA. Forty patients (66.7%) had Abnormal mfERG. The mean vascular density (VD) in Superficial capillary plexus (SCP) layer was not significantly different between Normal mfERG and Abnormal mfERG groups (P-Value> 0.05). Mean VD in SCP layer was not significantly different between Normal mfERG and Abnormal mfERG groups (P-Value> 0.05). In RA subgroup, mean VD in SCP layer in PeriFovea region in Abnormal mfERG group was significantly lower than normal group (P-Value  0.05).VD in the DCP layer decreased in abnormal mfERG patients compared to patients with normal mfERG. But it seems that VD in SCP layer, FAZ Area and Flow Area are similar in both groups. OCTA may be used as a non-invasive tool in the diagnosis of early stages of HCQ-induced retinopathy, especially in RA patients, but further studies are needed.

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Authors: Mohammadreza Akhlaghi, Farzan Kianersi, Hamed Radmehr, Alireza Dehghani, Afsaneh Naderi Beni, Pegah Noorshargh