Epiretinal membrane: A review.

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The prevalence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) is 7-11.8%, with increasing age being the most important risk factor. Although most ERM is idiopathic, common secondary causes include cataract surgery, retinal vascular disease, uveitis and retinal tears. The myofibroblastic pre-retinal cells are thought to transdifferentiate from glial and retinal pigment epithelial cells that reach the retinal surface via defects in the internal limiting membrane (ILM) or from the vitreous cavity. Grading schemes have evolved from clinical signs to optical coherence tomography (OCT) based classification with associated features such as the cotton ball sign. Features predictive of better prognosis include absence of ectopic inner foveal layers, cystoid macular oedema, acquired vitelliform lesions and ellipsoid and cone outer segment termination defects. OCT-Angiography shows reduced size of the foveal avascular zone. Vitrectomy with membrane peeling remains the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic ERMs. Additional ILM peeling reduces recurrence but is associated with anatomical changes including inner retinal dimpling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Authors: Adrian T Fung, Justin Galvin, Tuan Tran