Endoscopic eradication therapy for Barrett’s oesophagus: state of the art.
Barrett’s oesophagus is the only identifiable precursor lesion to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The stepwise progression of Barrett’s oesophagus to dysplasia and invasive carcinoma provides the opportunity to intervene and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this lethal cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) for the management of Barrett’s oesophagus related neoplasia. The primary goal of EET is to achieve complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) followed by enrolment of patients in surveillance protocols to detect recurrence of Barrett’s oesophagus and Barrett’s oesophagus related neoplasia.EET depends on early and accurate detection and diagnosis of Barrett’s oesophagus related neoplasia. All visible lesions should be resected followed by ablation of the remaining Barrett’s epithelium. After treatment, patients should be enrolled in endoscopic surveillance programmes. For nondysplastic Barrett’s oesophagus, surveillance alone is recommended. For low-grade dysplasia, both surveillance and ablation are reasonable options and should be decided on an individual basis according to patient risk factors and preferences. EET is preferred for high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal carcinoma. For T1b oesophageal adenocarcinoma, esophagectomy remains the standard of care, but endoscopic therapy can be considered in select cases.EET is now standard of care and endorsed by societal guidelines for the treatment of Barrett’s oesophagus related neoplasia. Future studies should focus on risk stratification models using a combination of clinical data and biomarkers to identify ideal candidates for EET, and to predict recurrence. Optimal therapy for T1b cancer and surveillance strategy after CE-IM are topics that require further study.