Effects of an Electronic Software “Prompt” With Health Care Professional Training on Cardiovascular and Renal Complications in a Multiethnic Population With Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria (the GP-Prompt Study): Results of a Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized Trial.
Tight, targeted control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors can reduce cardiovascular complications and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and microalbuminuria. The effects of using an electronic “Prompt” with a treatment algorithm to support a treat-to-target approach has not been tested in primary care.A multicenter, cluster-randomized trial was conducted among primary care practices across Leicestershire, U.K. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals achieving systolic and diastolic blood pressure (<130 and <80 mmHg, respectively) and total cholesterol (<3.5 mmol/L) targets at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included proportion of individuals with HbA1c <58 mmol/mol (<7.5%), changes in prescribing, change in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and coding accuracy.A total of 2,721 individuals from 22 practices, mean age 63 years, 41% female, and 62% from black and minority ethnic groups completed 2 years of follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of individuals achieving the composite primary outcome, although the proportion of individuals achieving the prespecified outcome of total cholesterol <4.0 mmol (odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.05-1.47; P = 0.01) increased with intensive intervention compared with control. Coding for microalbuminuria increased relative to control (odds ratio 2.05; 95% CI 1.29-3.25; P < 0.01).Greater improvements in composite cardiovascular risk factor control with this intervention compared with standard care were not achieved in this cohort of high-risk individuals with T2DM. However, improvements in lipid profile and coding can benefit patients with diabetes to alter the high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Future studies should consider comprehensive strategies, including patient education and health care professional engagement, in the management of T2DM.