Effect of Etiology, Radiographic Severity, and Comorbidities on Baseline Parent-Reported Health Measures for Children with Early-Onset Scoliosis.
The Classification of Early-Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) allows providers to differentiate patients, for clinical and research purposes, on the basis of the etiology of their disease as well as radiographic parameters. The Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire (EOSQ) is the first disease-specific, parent-reported HRQOL (health-related quality-of-life) outcome measure for this condition. We sought to determine the influence of the C-EOS etiology designation, radiographic parameters, and medical comorbidities on EOSQ scores to differentiate quality of life in this heterogeneous patient population. We hypothesized that baseline EOSQ scores for patients with EOS would be strongly affected by the C-EOS etiology designation.The analysis included prospectively enrolled patients with EOSQ scores recorded in a multicenter EOS database prior to intervention for the EOS. EOSQ scores were compared across C-EOS etiologies, severity of disease based on radiographic measurements, and patient comorbidities prior to scoliosis intervention.Six hundred and ten patients with EOS were available for analysis; 119 had congenital, 201 had idiopathic, 156 had neuromuscular, and 134 had syndromic EOS. In multivariate analysis, neuromuscular and syndromic etiologies were associated with lower scores than congenital and idiopathic etiologies in many EOSQ domains including general health, transfer, daily living, fatigue/energy level, and emotion. Patients with neuromuscular EOS had the lowest EOSQ scores in general. Congenital and idiopathic EOS did not differ from each other in any EOSQ domain. Coronal Cobb and kyphosis angles had significant inverse but generally weak correlations with EOSQ domains. Individual medical comorbidities had a minor effect on certain domains while American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class and total number of comorbidities had inverse correlations with most domains.The underlying etiology of EOS appears to have a significant influence on the parent-reported HRQOL outcomes of the disease. Specifically, syndromic and neuromuscular C-EOS diagnoses are associated with lower EOSQ scores before treatment compared with congenital and idiopathic diagnoses. Radiographic measurements of severity have a relatively small influence on EOSQ scores. These baseline differences in C-EOS-designated etiology should be accounted for in studies comparing outcomes of treatment for this heterogeneous patient population.Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.