Effect of corticosteroid (triamcinolone acetonide) and chlorhexidin on chemotherapy- induced oxidative stress in buccal mucosa of rats.
Oral mucositis (OM) refers to erythematous and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. This pathology can occur by various causes. Cancer therapy is one of the well-known causes of OM such as chemotherapy and/or with radiation therapy. It has been widely mentioned that oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LP) levels increase during cancer process. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the major intracellular enzymes to detoxify oxidant molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA), a synthetic steroid chlorhexidine (CHX), a chemical antiseptic, on 5- fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapeutic agent and soft abrasion induced OM in buccal mucosa of rats.OM was induced in rats through a combination of 5-FU treatment and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch with a wire brush. Buccal mucosa lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were higher (p< 0.05) in 5-FU group than in control although LP levels were lower (p<0.05) in TA group than in control group. The reduced glutathione levels were lower (p<0.05) in 5-FU group than in the control group although its level was higher (p<0.05) in TA and CHX groups than in the 5-FU group. Glutathione peroxidase activity was also higher (p<0.05) in TA group than the 5- FU group. In histopathological analyses, treatment with TA reduced 5-FU induced inflammatory cell infiltration and ulceration (p<0.001) but not with CHX.In conclusion, we observed that TA and CHX treatment modulated chemotherapy induced oxidative injury in the rat OM. However, only TA histopathologically ameliorated the 5-FU induced OM of rats. These findings suggest that TA is a useful agent for management of experimental oxidative injury and OM caused by the chemotherapy.