Early nephrectomy in neonates with symptomatic autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

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Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare cause of renal failure with a highly variable clinical course. Patients who are symptomatic early in life frequently require early nephrectomy and peritoneal dialysis. In these patients there are little data to guide clinicians on whether to select unilateral nephrectomy or bilateral nephrectomy at the initial operative intervention. We review our experience with this disease process.A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients at our institution with ARPKD symptomatic within the first month of life. Charts were reviewed for relevant clinical data, and patients were divided into groups based on undergoing either unilateral or bilateral nephrectomy at their initial intervention. The decision for unilateral versus bilateral nephrectomy was decided by the clinical team without any available guidelines.Of the 11 patients reviewed, two patients died within the first two weeks from other complications. The remaining 9 all required nephrectomy, with 5 undergoing synchronous bilateral nephrectomy, and 4 undergoing initial unilateral nephrectomy. All four patients required removal of their contralateral kidney, a median of 25.5 days later. There was no difference in mortality, ventilator free days, or time to full feeds between the two groups, although the group undergoing initial unilateral nephrectomy had more TPN days than their counterparts (28 vs 17 days, p = 0.014).In our cohort, there were few significant differences between the groups based on choice of initial unilateral or bilateral nephrectomy, and all children ultimately required removal of both kidneys. These data suggest that anesthetic exposures and other clinical outcomes might be optimized by initial bilateral nephrectomy.III.

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