Differential Health Care Use, Diabetes-Related Complications, and Mortality Among Five Unique Classes of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Singapore: A Latent Class Analyses of 71,125 Patients.
With rising health care costs and finite health care resources, understanding the population needs of different type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patient subgroups is important. Sparse data exist for the application of population segmentation on health care needs among Asian T2DM patients. We aimed to segment T2DM patients into distinct classes and evaluate their differential health care use, diabetes-related complications, and mortality patterns.Latent class analysis was conducted on a retrospective cohort of 71,125 T2DM patients. Latent class indicators included patient’s age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and duration of T2DM. Outcomes evaluated included health care use, diabetes-related complications, and 4-year all-cause mortality. The relationship between class membership and outcomes was evaluated with the appropriate regression models.Five classes of T2DM patients were identified. The prevalence of depression was high among patients in class 3 (younger females with short-to-moderate T2DM duration and high psychiatric and neurological disease burden) and class 5 (older patients with moderate-to-long T2DM duration and high disease burden with end-organ complications). They were the highest tertiary health care users. Class 5 patients had the highest risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 12.05, 95% CI 10.82-13.42]), end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis initiation (HR 25.81, 95% CI 21.75-30.63), stroke (HR 19.37, 95% CI 16.92-22.17), lower-extremity amputation (HR 12.94, 95% CI 10.90-15.36), and mortality (HR 3.47, 95% CI 3.17-3.80).T2DM patients can be segmented into classes with differential health care use and outcomes. Depression screening should be considered for the two identified classes of patients.