Development and Validation of the Brief Assessment of Distress about Pain.
The experience of pain is a complex interaction of somatic, behavioral, affective, and cognitive components. Negative psychological states (e.g., anxiety, fear, and depression) are intertwined with pain and contribute to poorer outcomes for individuals suffering from chronic and acute pain by exacerbating the overall experience of pain and leading to increased dysfunction, disability, and distress. A need exists for efficient assessment of aversive emotional states that are associated with pain.A multi-stage developmental process included expert judges, two undergraduate samples, and a chronic pain sample. The 4-item Brief Assessment of Distress about Pain (BADP) scale was developed, assessing anxiety, fear, and depression related to pain, as well as an overall evaluation of distress about pain.Principal components analyses indicated that the BADP consisted of one factor; inter-scale correlation coefficients revealed that the BADP was highly related to other measures that assess similar constructs, suggesting evidence for convergent validity. Intra-scale correlation coefficients indicated that the items of the BADP were only moderately associated with each other. Findings also supported evidence for discriminative validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the BADP.The BADP has good psychometric properties as a measure of negative affectivity related to pain. The scale’s single negative affectivity item may be useful for screening. The BADP helps address a gap in the literature with regard to a brief measure assessing fear, anxiety, depression, and negative affect in relation to pain. Demonstrated utility in a patient sample indicates the measure is suitable for further clinical study.
Authors: Laura L Quentin, Cecelia I Nelson, Casey D Wright, Matthew C Arias, Manasi M Mittinty, Daniel W McNeil