Crumley’s Classification of Laryngeal Synkinesis: A Comparison of Laryngoscopy and Electromyography.

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Applying the principles of misdirected nerve regeneration to the larynx, Roger Crumley in 1989 coined the term laryngeal synkinesis (LS) which he later (2000) classified into 4 types (type I – good voice, type II – involuntary twitches and poor voice, type III – adduction during inspiration, type IV – abduction during phonation). Neurophysiological data were not available for all LS patients at that time. The current study was undertaken to utilize and test the Crumley classification for a clinical interrater comparison and, secondly, compare predicted with actual laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) results.Descriptive study METHODS: Laryngoscopic and LEMG data of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP) of 6 months duration or longer were combined for retrospective evaluation. Forty-five data sets were available for laryngoscopic classification by two local laryngologists and by Roger Crumley. Twenty-three data sets with complete thyroarytenoid (TA) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) – EMG data were used to compare predicted with actual LEMG results.Local laryngologists were able to classify 24 of 45, Crumley 30 of 45 cases into one of the 4 synkinesis types. There was substantial agreement between examiners (Cohens Kappa 0.66 [P 

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