COVID-19 transmission, vulnerability, persistence and nanotherapy: a review.

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End 2019, the zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), named COVID-19 for coronavirus disease 2019, is the third adaptation of a contagious virus following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in 2002, SARS-CoV, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome virus in 2012, MERS-CoV. COVID-19 is highly infectious and virulent compared to previous outbreaks. We review sources, contagious routes, preventive measures, pandemic, outbreak, epidemiology of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 from 2002 to 2020 using a Medline search. We discuss the chronology of the three coronaviruses, the vulnerability of healthcare workers, coronaviruses on surface and in wastewater, diagnostics and cures, and measures to prevent spreading.

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Authors: Afzal Husain Khan, Vineet Tirth, Manal Fawzy, Alaa El Din Mahmoud, Nadeem A Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Syed Sadat Ali, Muhammad Akram, Leena Hameed, Saiful Islam, Gotam Das, Sharmili Roy, Mohammad Hadi Dehghani