Comparison of Benefit of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Low Gradient Versus High Gradient Aortic Stenosis and Left Ventricular Dysfunction.
Patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis (LG-AS) often exhibit significant limitations in functional status and quality of life. We aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on LG-AS patients compared to those with high transvalvular gradients and similar left ventricular dysfunction. Retrospective analysis of records for all patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <50% who underwent TAVI at our institution was performed. Patients were grouped according to their transvalvular gradient. Data were collected from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. Clinical benefit endpoints included improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction and changes in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Additional outcomes analyzed included 1-year all-cause mortality, stroke rates, rates of rehospitalization, need for a permanent pacemaker, and hospital length of stay. Two hundred three patients met our inclusion criteria. one hundred one LG-AS patients (mean transvalvular gradient <40 mm Hg) were compared to 102 patients with high transvalvular gradients (mean transvalvular gradient >40 mm Hg). LG-AS patients yielded similar improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction (43.5% ± 63.7 vs 37.7% ± 58.7; p = 0.525) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores (423.51% ± 1257.02 vs 266.56% ± 822.81; p = 0.352). There were no differences between the groups with respect to 1-year mortality (16.8% vs 12.7%; p = 0.412), stroke rates, hospital length of stay, need for permanent pacemaker implantation or hospital readmissions. In conclusion, we found that TAVI is associated with comparable improvement in clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in LG-AS patients as compared to those with high gradient severe aortic stenosis.