Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning in Youth With Retinoblastoma: A Longitudinal Investigation Through 10 Years of Age.
To describe the trajectory of cognitive and adaptive functioning in pediatric patients with retinoblastoma from diagnosis through age 10. This is an extension of a previous report that discussed findings from diagnosis through age 5.Ninety-eight participants with retinoblastoma completed psychological assessments as part of their enrollment on an institutional treatment protocol, with 73 completing an additional assessment at age 10. Trajectories of adaptive and cognitive functioning were determined, with data analyzed by treatment strata, and patients with 13q- analyzed separately.Longitudinal trajectories identified a significant change point in trends at age 5, with functioning declining from diagnosis through age 5 and then increasing from age 5 to age 10. This pattern was observed for all strata for adaptive functioning, but only for enucleation-only patients (strata C low) for cognitive functioning. Cognitive trajectories were also influenced by laterality and enucleation status. At age 10, overall functioning was generally within the average range, although estimated intelligence quotient was significantly below the normative mean for enucleation-only (C low) patients. Patients with 13q- demonstrated very low functioning, but few analyses were significant because of small sample size.The results generally indicate that previously demonstrated declines in functioning from diagnosis through age 5 improve by age 10. However, these early declines, as well as the continuous difficulties observed in patients treated with enucleation only, suggest the need for early intervention services for young patients with retinoblastoma. Continuous monitoring of the psychological functioning of patients with retinoblastoma, increased awareness of risk factors such as unilateral disease, enucleation, race, and surgery-only treatment plans, and referral to Early Intervention for all patients are indicated.
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Authors: Victoria W Willard, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Haitao Pan, Chia-Wei Hsu, Rachel C Brennan, Matthew W Wilson, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Kristin Goode, Kendra Parris, Sean Phipps