Cochlear Implant Fixation Techniques: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

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Given the lack of consensus on fixation techniques of the cochlear implant, this review aims to create an up-to-date overview of intra- and postoperative complications, focusing on migration of the internal receiver/stimulator (R/S) device and the electrode array.On June 29, 2020 we conducted a search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Keywords were “Cochlear implant,” “complication,” “migration,” and synonyms.Studies were considered if: 1) the adult study population consisted of ≥ 10 patients, 2) the R/S device was fixated using the bony well or tight subperiostal pocket technique without bone-anchoring sutures or screws on the implant, and 3) migration of the R/S device or displacement of the electrode array were described as outcomes.Study characteristics, interventions, follow-up, and outcomes were extracted. For critical appraisal, an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for cohort studies was used.Seven studies were included (n = 430 patients). Migration of the R/S device was reported by three studies. Two studies applying the tight pocket technique reported migration rates ranging from 9.0 to 69.2%. One study using the bony bed technique reported migration of 100%, with an average of 2.5 mm. All studies lacked the required standard for comparability, assessment of outcome, and follow-up.There is currently no evidence of a difference between the bony bed- and tight pocket fixation technique, regarding migration of the R/S device or the electrode array, in adult patients.

View the full article @ Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
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Authors: Laura M Markodimitraki, Ruben M Strijbos, Inge Stegeman, Hans G X M Thomeer