Clinical Research, Basic ScienceEpidemiological Analysis of 37,424 Carotid Artery Stenosis Intervention procedures during 11 years in the Public Health System in Brazil: Stenting Has Been More Common than Endarterectomy.

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Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide, with carotid atherosclerosis accounting for 10 to 20% of cases. In Brazil, the Public Health System provides care for roughly two-thirds of the population. No studies, however, have analysed large-scale results of carotid bifurcation surgery in Brazil.This study aimed to describe rates of carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed between 2008 and 2019 in the country through web scraping of publicly available databases.Between 2008 and 2019, 37,424 carotid bifurcation revascularization procedures were performed, of which 22,578 were CAS (60.34%) and 14,846 (39.66%) were CEA. There were 620 in-hospital deaths (1.66%), 336 after CAS (1.48%) and 284 after CEA (1.92%) (p = 0.032). Governmental reimbursement was US$ 77,216,298.85 (79.31% of all reimbursement) for CAS procedures and US$ 20,143,009.63 (20.69%) for CEA procedures. The average cost per procedure for CAS (US$ 3,062.98) was higher than that for CEA (US$ 1,430.33) (p = 0.008).In Brazil, the frequency of CAS largely surpassed that of CEA. In-hospital mortality rates of CAS were significantly lower than those of CEA, although both had mortality rates within the acceptable rates as dictated by literature. The cost of CAS, however, was significantly higher. This is a pioneering analysis of carotid artery disease management in Brazil that provides, for the first time, preliminary insight into the fact that the low adoption of CEA in the country is in opposition to countries where utilization rates are higher for CEA than for CAS.

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Authors: Nelson Wolosker, Maria Fernanda Cassino Portugal, Marcelo Fiorelli Alexandrino da Silva, Rodrigo Massaud, Edson Amaro, Claudia Jerussalmy, Marcelo Passos Teivelis