Clinical management of patients with primary immunodeficiencies during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Introduction: Patients affected by Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) represent a potential group-at-risk in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Studies on large and small cohorts of IEI reported a huge variability clinical manifestations associated to SARS-Cov-2, ranging from asymptomatic, mild, moderate/severe to death. A great impulse to improve remote assistance programs and to switch to home-based treatment to reduce mobility and face to face contacts has been implemented. Areas covered: The authors completed a comprehensive review of the literature by searching the PubMed database for studies on large and small cohorts and case reports of IEI patients with COVID-19, with the aim to provide useful information for their clinical management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expert opinion: Surprisingly, a low number of IEI patients affected by SARS-Cov-2 were reported with a risk to die for COVID-19 overlapping that of the general population. The low number might be explained by the choice of most physicians to inform early in the pandemic about safety measures, to switch most of the IEI patients to home therapy and to remote assistance. The guidelines issued by the scientific societies and periodically updated, represent the best tool for the clinical management of IEI patients.