Chitosan nanoparticles for enhancing drugs and cosmetic components penetration through the skin.

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Chitosan nanoparticles (CT NPs) have attractive biomedical applications due to their unique properties. This present research aimed at development of chitosan nanoparticles to be used as skin delivery systems for cosmetic components and drugs and to track their penetration behaviour through pig skin. CT NPs were prepared by ionic gelation technique using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and Acacia as crosslinkers. The particle sizes of NPs appeared to be dependent on the molecular weight of chitosan and concentration of both chitosan and crosslinkers. CT NPs were positively charged as demonstrated by their Zeta potential values. The formation of the nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR and DSC. Both SEM and TEM micrographs showed that both CT-Acacia and CT:TPP NPs were smooth, spherical in shape and are distributed uniformly with a size range of 200nm to 300 nm. The CT:TPP NPs retained an average of 98% of the added water over a 48-hour period. CT-Acacia NPs showed high moisture absorption but lower moisture retention capacity, which indicates their competency to entrap polar actives in cosmetics and release the encapsulated actives in low polarity skin conditions. The cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay showed that CT NPs made using TPP or Acacia crosslinkers were similarly non-toxic to the human dermal fibroblast cells. Cellular uptake study of NPs observed using live-cell imaging microscopy, proving the great cellular internalisation of CT:TPP NPs and CT-Acacia NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that CT NPs of particle size 530nm containing fluorescein sodium salt as a marker were able to penetrate through the pig skin and gather in the dermis layer. These results show that CT NPs have the ability to deliver the actives and cosmetic components through the skin and to be used as cosmetics and dermal drug delivery system.

View the full article @ European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Authors: Quynh Ta, Jessica Ting, Sophie Harwood, Nicola Browning, Alan Simm, Kehinde Ross, Ivan Olier, Raida Al-Kassas