Characteristics and recurrence of pterygium in Saudi Arabia: a single center study with a long follow-up.

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This study described the clinical features of patients with pterygium and analyzed the recurrence rate of conjunctival autografting alone, conjunctival autografting combined with intraoperative mitomycin C, and amniotic membrane grafting.A retrospective cohort study of primary pterygium was conducted between January 2017 and February 2020. Factors associated with pterygium severity and recurrence were analyzed by univariate analysis and logistic regression models.The study included 292 patients with an average age of 53.3 ± 14.1 years, while the number of operated cases was 94. Pterygia involving the cornea were observed in 55 % of the cases. The overall rate of recurrence for the three procedures was 17 %. The average time of recurrence was 14.2 ± 11.9 months, with 37 % of the recurrences occurring after the first year. The only factor associated with a significant risk of recurrence was dry eye disease in both univariate (p = 0.021) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.026). The recurrence rates following conjunctival autografting with and without mitomycin C were 15.6 and 15.8 %, respectively. The recurrence rate following the amniotic membrane graft was  twofold (OR= 2.02)  (27 %) that following the conjunctival autograft (15.8 %).The only factor associated with the recurrence of pterygium was dry eye disease. More than one-third of recurrences developed after the first year, which stresses the importance of a long follow-up. The recurrence rate in our study following conjunctival graft was slightly higher compared to the literature mainly due to differences in study areas, populations, and follow-up periods.

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Authors: Waleed Alsarhani, Saeed Alshahrani, Mahmood Showail, Nawaf Alhabdan, Osama Alsumari, Abdullah Almalki, Abdulaziz Alsarhani, Adel Alluhaidan, Bader Alqahtani