Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Combined Organ Transplantation (from the United Network for Organ Sharing).
Studies have shown that highly selected patients who underwent combined heart-kidney (HK) and heart-liver transplants (HLv) have short- and long-term outcomes comparable to those observed in primary heart transplantation (HT). Adults patients with stage D heart failure that underwent combined HK, HLv, and heart-lung (HL) were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry from 1991 to 2016, with follow-up through March 2018. We conducted inverse probability of treatment weighting survival analysis of long-term survival stratified by type of combined organ transplant, accounting for donor, recipient, and operative characteristics. We identified 2,300 patients who underwent combined organ transplant (HK 1,257, HLv 212, HL 831). HL recipients were more likely white (77%), women (58%), with congenital heart disease (44.5%), and longer waiting list time (median 195 days). HK transplant increased significantly during the study period where as HL decreased significantly. Median survival was 12.2 years for HK (95% confidence intervals [CI] 10.8 to 12.8), 12 for HLv (95% CI 8.6 to 17.6) but significantly lower at 4.5 years for HL (95% CI 3.6 to 5.8). Combined HK and HLv transplantation rates are increasing and long-term survival is comparable to primary HT, unlike HL which is associated with decreasing trends and significantly lower survival.