Changes to bone mineral density, the trabecular bone score and hip structural analysis following parathyroidectomy: a case report.

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Reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) occurs in secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic kidney disease. BMD generally increases following parathyroidectomy, however longitudinal changes to other DXA-derived parameters, the trabecular bone score (TBS) and hip structural analysis (HSA), have not been described. Postoperative calcium requirements and positive calcium balance raise concerns for an increased risk of vascular calcification. This case illustrates the dramatic increase in BMD that can follow parathyroidectomy in a patient on dialysis, and for the first time demonstrates improvements to HSA parameters and to the TBS.A 30-year old woman on haemodialysis underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. She developed a post-operative ‘hungry bone syndrome’ requiring substantial calcium and calcitriol supplementation. Six months post-parathyroidectomy, BMD increased by 42% at the lumbar spine, 30% at the femoral neck and 25% at the total proximal femur, with increases sustained over the following 18 months. The TBS increased by 8%. HSA showed a 63% increase in femoral neck cortical thickness and 38% reduction in the buckling ratio, consistent with increased femoral neck stability. The abdominal aortic vascular calcification score (0-24) increased from zero 8-years pre-parathyroidectomy to 2/24 at 18-months post-parathyroidectomy.BMD losses incurred by secondary hyperparathyroidism recover rapidly after parathyroidectomy, particularly at sites of trabecular bone. Bone architectural parameters, measured as the TBS and by HSA, also improve. Greater BMD gains may be associated with higher post-operative calcium requirements. While bone is the major reservoir for post-parathyroidectomy calcium supplementation, positive calcium balance may contribute to vascular calcification risk.

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