Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with COVID-19: a case series and literature review.
Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran between June and July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, prominent COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated.Six patients (31-62 years-old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four patients died. SARS-COV-2 associated CVST patients were older (49.26 vs. 37.77 years-old), had lower female/male ratio (1.42 vs. 2.19), and higher mortality rate (35.29% vs. 6.07%) than CVST not associated with COVID-19.The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a “cause” versus an “additive contributor” remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors: Vahid Reza Ostovan, Razieh Foroughi, Mahtab Rostami, Mostafa Almasi-Dooghaee, Manouchehr Esmaili, Ali Akbar Bidaki, Zahra Behzadi, Farzane Farzadfard, Hoda Marbooti, Abbas Rahimi-Jaberi, Maryam Poursadeghfard, Nima Fadakar, Mahnaz Bayat, Maryam Owjfard, Mohammad Saied Salehi, Seyedeh Shaghayegh Zafarmand, Farzad Mardi, Anahid Safari, Shima Shahjouei, Ashkan Mowla, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Ramin Zand, Etrat Hooshmandi, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi