Achieving the ambitious targets for global tuberculosis (TB) control, will require an increased emphasis on preventing development of active disease in those with latent TB infection (LTBI) by preventative treatment […]» Read more
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, affecting over 350 million people worldwide and placing a significant burden on healthcare providers and wider society. Approximately 5-10% of asthma […]» Read more
Culture of Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells from Pulmonary Artery Catheter Balloon Tips: Considerations for Use in Pulmonary Vascular Disease.
Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but there are no established methods to study pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from living patients. We sought to culture […]» Read more
Gefapixant has previously demonstrated efficacy in the treatment refractory chronic cough at a high, daily dose.The current investigations explore efficacy and tolerability of gefapixant, a P2X3 receptor antagonist, for the […]» Read more
Indoor air pollution and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with respiratory symptoms in infants, but little is known about the direct association with lung function or interactions with genetic […]» Read more
Little is known about early predictors of later cystic fibrosis (CF) structural lung disease. This study examined early predictors of progressive structural lung abnormalities in children who completed the Australasian […]» Read more
Overuse of short-acting β2-agonists in asthma is associated with increased risk of exacerbation and mortality: A nationwide cohort study of the global SABINA programme.
Overuse of short-acting β2 agonists (SABA) may indicate poor asthma control and adverse health outcomes. Contemporary population-based data on use, risk factors and impact of SABA (over)use on asthma exacerbations […]» Read more
Sarcoidosis is a disease characterised by granuloma formation. There is an unmet need for new treatment strategies beyond corticosteroids. The NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is expressed in innate immune cells and […]» Read more
Swedish National tuberculosis (TB) guidelines recommend screening of active and latent TB (LTBI) among pregnant women (PW) from high endemic countries or previous exposure to possibly improve early detection and […]» Read more
Development and validation of parsimonious algorithms to classify acute respiratory distress syndrome phenotypes: a secondary analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Using latent class analysis (LCA) in five randomised controlled trial (RCT) cohorts, two distinct phenotypes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been identified: hypoinflammatory and hyperinflammatory. The phenotypes are […]» Read more
Click here to read the full article @ The Lancet. Respiratory medicine» Read more
Impact of respiratory muscle training on respiratory muscle strength, respiratory function and quality of life in individuals with tetraplegia: a randomised clinical trial.
Respiratory complications remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with acute and chronic tetraplegia. Respiratory muscle weakness following spinal cord injury-induced tetraplegia impairs lung function and the […]» Read more
Integrated proteogenomic approach identifying a protein signature of COPD and a new splice variant of SORBS1.
Translation of genomic alterations to protein changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely unexplored. Using integrated proteomic and RNA sequencing analysis of COPD and control lung tissues, we […]» Read more
Type 2 immune dysfunction contributes to acute lung injury and lethality following haemorrhagic shock (HS) and trauma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play a significant role in the regulation […]» Read more
Click here to read the full article @ The Lancet. Respiratory medicine» Read more
A 38-year-old male with a prior diagnosis of severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 99/h) presented for transfer of care. He was successfully titrated to CPAP of 10 cm H2O at an […]» Read more
A 59-Year-Old Man With Chronic Kidney Disease After Kidney Transplantation Presents With Chronic Dyspnea.
A 59-year-old man presented to the ED with a chief complaint of shortness of breath. His past medical history was significant for end-stage renal disease secondary to lithium toxicity, immunosuppression […]» Read more
A 64-year-old man presented for consideration for lung transplant. He had a history of previous tobacco use, OSA on CPAP therapy, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. He worked as a design […]» Read more
A 78-year-old man with asthma and COPD presented with shortness of breath, cough, and severe malaise for 4 days. Upon arrival, the patient was conscious and body temperature was 37.5°C. Arterial […]» Read more
Randomised, double-blind, multicentre, mixed-methods, dose-escalation feasibility trial of mirtazapine for better treatment of severe breathlessness in advanced lung disease (BETTER-B feasibility).
New treatments are required for severe breathlessness in advanced disease. We conducted a randomised feasibility trial of mirtazapine over 28 days in adults with a modified medical research council breathlessness […]» Read more
The patient is a 37-year-old hospital employee and current smoker with a 10 pack-year smoking history, who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, and weight loss. She was in her usual […]» Read more
Zinc is well known for its anti-inflammatory effects, including regulation of migration and activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Zinc deficiency is associated with inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury […]» Read more
Per cent low attenuation volume and fractal dimension of low attenuation clusters on CT predict different long-term outcomes in COPD.
Fractal dimension (D) characterises the size distribution of low attenuation clusters on CT and assesses the spatial heterogeneity of emphysema that per cent low attenuation volume (%LAV) cannot detect. This […]» Read more
Comparing treatment effects of a convenient vibratory positional device to CPAP in positional OSA: a crossover randomised controlled trial.
Up to 77% of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have positional OSA (POSA) but traditional positional therapy (PT) methods have failed as they were poorly tolerated. New convenient vibratory […]» Read more
While malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common and significant cause of morbidity in patients with cancer, current treatment options are limited. Human heparanase, involved in angiogenesis and metastasis, cleaves […]» Read more
Comparative Safety and Effectiveness of Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-Acting β2 Agonist Combinations in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
The differential risk of pneumonia among inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires more investigation, especially for beclomethasone-containing inhalers. This study aimed to compare the […]» Read more
COPD is a heterogeneous syndrome. Many COPD subtypes have been proposed, but there is not yet consensus on how many COPD subtypes there are and how they should be defined. […]» Read more
Post-treatment survival difference between lobectomy and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in stage I non-small cell lung cancer in England.
Approximately 15%-20% of all non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases present with stage I disease. Surgical resection traditionally offers the best chance of a cure but some patients will not […]» Read more
Appraising the Integral Role of the Electronic Health Record and Tracking Software in the Implementation of Lung Cancer Screening: A Perspective from the National Lung Cancer Roundtable.
Click here to read the full article @ Chest» Read more
IgA Antibodies Directed Against Citrullinated Protein Antigens Are Elevated in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
The etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. Because it shares genetic, histopathologic and radiographic features with the fibrosing interstitial lung disease seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we sought […]» Read more