Smoking is the most well-established cause of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) but particulate air pollution and poverty have also been implicated. We regressed sex-specific prevalence of CAO from 41 Burden […]» Read more
Lung function in children with cystic fibrosis in the USA and UK: a comparative longitudinal analysis of national registry data.
A previous analysis found significantly higher lung function in the US paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) population compared with the UK with this difference apparently decreasing in adolescence and adulthood. However, […]» Read more
Tezepelumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks thymic stromal lymphopoietin, an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. The efficacy and safety of tezepelumab in patients with severe, […]» Read more
Bronchial gene expression signature associated with rate of subsequent FEV1 decline in individuals with and at risk of COPD.
COPD is characterised by progressive lung function decline. Leveraging prior work demonstrating bronchial airway COPD-associated gene expression alterations, we sought to determine if there are alterations associated with differences in […]» Read more
Effect of Antimicrobial Therapy on Respiratory Hospitalization or Death in Adults With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: The CleanUP-IPF Randomized Clinical Trial.
Alteration in lung microbes is associated with disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.To assess the effect of antimicrobial therapy on clinical outcomes.Pragmatic, randomized, unblinded clinical trial conducted across 35 US […]» Read more
The inflammatory profile of exacerbations in patients with severe refractory eosinophilic asthma receiving mepolizumab (the MEX study): a prospective observational study.
Clinical trials with mepolizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, show a 50% reduction in severe asthma exacerbations in people with severe eosinophilic asthma. Exacerbations in patients treated with mepolizumab […]» Read more
Family engagement is a key component of high-quality critical care, with known benefits for patients, care teams, and family members themselves. The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid enactment of prohibitions […]» Read more
Despite advances in technology, the bronchoscopic diagnosis of parenchymal pulmonary lesions (PPL) remains difficult to achieve. Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy (TLCB) offers the potential for larger samples with improved diagnostic yield, […]» Read more
Early identification of poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is of major clinical importance to optimize treatment outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).How does socioeconomic […]» Read more
Smokers manifest varied phenotypes of pulmonary impairment.Which pulmonary phenotypes are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in smokers?& Methods: We analyzed data from the Pittsburgh SCCOR cohort (n=481), and the […]» Read more
Long-term safety of lumacaftor-ivacaftor in children aged 2-5 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation: a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, extension study.
A previous phase 3 study showed that lumacaftor-ivacaftor was generally safe and well tolerated over 24 weeks of treatment in children aged 2-5 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the […]» Read more
The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, with devastating consequences. While the medical community has gained insight into the epidemiology of COVID-19, important questions remain about […]» Read more
Comparison of First Nations and non-First Nations children’s profiles with bronchiectasis over two five-year periods from the Northern Territory, Australia.
Although the burden of bronchiectasis is globally recognised, there is limited paediatric data particularly on trends over the years. There is also no published data on whether vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency […]» Read more
Nusinersen is used in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to improve peripheral muscle function; however, respiratory effects are largely unknown.To assess the effects of nusinersen on respiratory function in paediatric SMA […]» Read more
Subphenotypes have been identified in patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and are associated with different outcomes and response to therapies.Can unique subphenotypes be identified among critically […]» Read more
Interaction between Genetic Risk Scores for reduced pulmonary function and smoking, asthma and endotoxin.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous loci associated with lower pulmonary function. Pulmonary function is strongly related to smoking and has also been associated with asthma and dust endotoxin. […]» Read more
Autoreactivity against pulmonary vascular structures is thought to be involved in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesised that aberrant B-cell activation contributes […]» Read more
Early infant diet might influence the risk of subsequent allergic disease.The Merthyr Allergy Prevention Study (MAPS) was a randomised controlled trial in infants at high risk of allergic disease. The […]» Read more
3-month, 6-month, 9-month, and 12-month respiratory outcomes in patients following COVID-19-related hospitalisation: a prospective study.
The consequences of COVID-19 in those who recover from acute infection requiring hospitalisation have yet to be clearly defined. We aimed to describe the temporal trends in respiratory outcomes over […]» Read more
Additional study is warranted to investigate the causal effects between kidney function and obstructive lung disease.This study was a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. The CKDGen genome-wide association study […]» Read more
Acute pulmonary Exacerbations (AE) are episodes of clinical worsening in cystic fibrosis (CF), often precipitated by infection. Timely detection is critical to minimise morbidity and lung function declines associated with […]» Read more
The sputum microbiome and clinical outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis: a prospective observational study.
Infection is a key component of bronchiectasis pathophysiology. Characterisation of the microbiome offers a higher degree of sensitivity and resolution than does traditional culture methods. We aimed to evaluate the […]» Read more
Guidelines recommend endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) as an initial investigation technique for mediastinal nodal staging in lung cancer. However, EBUS-TBNA can be limited by the inadequacy of intact […]» Read more
Characterization of aerosol generation during exercise can inform development of safety recommendations in the face of COVID-19.Does exercise at various intensities produce aerosols in significant quantities?In this experimental study subjects […]» Read more
CT Findings and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI), A Multicenter Cohort of 160 Cases.
Electronic cigarette and vaping-induced lung injury (EVALI) causes a spectrum of CT lung injury patterns. Relative frequencies and associations with vaping behavior are unknown.What are the frequencies of imaging findings […]» Read more
Rifapentine-based regimens have potent antimycobacterial activity that may allow for a shorter course in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.In an open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial involving persons with newly […]» Read more
Performance of an Electronic Decision Support System as a Therapeutic Intervention During a Multicenter PICU Clinical Trial: Heart and Lung Failure-Pediatric Insulin Titration trial (HALF-PINT).
The use of electronic clinical decision support (CDS) systems for pediatric critical care trials is rare. We sought to describe in detail the use of a CDS tool (Children’s Hospital […]» Read more
Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycle ergometry-based progressive mobility programme for mechanically ventilated patients: randomised controlled trial with 6 months follow-up.
Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycle ergometry (FESCE) enables in-bed leg exercise independently of patients’ volition. We hypothesised that early use of FESCE-based progressive mobility programme improves physical function in survivors of […]» Read more
Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Prospective External and Temporal Validation of the HAL and HOMER Models.
Two models, the Help with the Assessment of Adenopathy in Lung cancer (HAL) and Help with Oncologic Mediastinal Evaluation for Radiation (HOMER), were recently developed to estimate the probability of […]» Read more
A reduction in pulmonary artery (PA) relaxation is a key event in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) pathogenesis. CFTR dysfunction in airway epithelial cells plays a central role in cystic fibrosis […]» Read more