Review of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) in 16 countries in Central Asia and Europe: implications for primary healthcare in the era of universal health coverage.

Abstract: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) was introduced in Central Asia and Europe to address the absence of evidence-based guidelines, antibiotics misuse, polypharmacy and overhospitalisation. This study in […]

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A Framework for Evaluation of the Higher-Risk Infant After a Brief Resolved Unexplained Event.

In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical practice guideline that more specifically defined apparent life-threatening events as brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs) and provided evidence-based recommendations for the evaluation of infants who meet lower-risk criteria for a subsequent event or serious underlying disorder. The clinical practice guideline did not provide recommendations for infants meeting higher-risk criteria, an important and common population of patients. Therefore, we propose a tiered approach for clinical evaluation and management of higher-risk infants who have experienced a BRUE. Because of a vast array of potential causes, the initial evaluation prioritizes the diagnosis of time-sensitive conditions for which delayed diagnosis or treatment could impact outcomes, such as child maltreatment, feeding problems, cardiac arrhythmias, infections, and congenital abnormalities. The secondary evaluation addresses problems that are less sensitive to delayed diagnosis or treatment, such as dysphagia, intermittent partial airway obstruction, and epilepsy. The authors recommend a tailored, family-centered, multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management of all higher-risk infants with a BRUE, whether accomplished during hospital admission or through coordinated outpatient care. The proposed framework was developed by using available evidence and expert consensus.

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Using Quality Improvement to Implement a Standardized Approach to Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus.

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are associated with high mortality and long-term morbidity. However, incidence is low and acyclovir, the treatment of choice, carries risk of toxicity. We aimed to increase the percentage of patients 0 to 60 days of age who are tested and treated for HSV in accordance with local guideline recommendations from 40% to 80%.This quality improvement project took place at 1 freestanding children’s hospital. Multiple plan-do-study-act cycles were focused on interventions aimed at key drivers including provider buy-in, guideline availability, and accurate identification of high-risk patients. A run chart was used to track the effect of interventions on the percentage managed per guideline recommendations over time by using established rules for determining special cause. Pre- and postimplementation acyclovir use was compared by using a ?2 test. In HSV-positive cases, delayed acyclovir initiation, defined as >1 day from presentation, was tracked as a balancing measure.The median percentage of patients managed according to guideline recommendations increased from 40% to 80% within 8 months. Acyclovir use decreased from 26% to 7.9% (P < .001) in non-high-risk patients but did not change significantly in high-risk patients (73%-83%; P = .15). There were no cases of delayed acyclovir initiation in HSV-positive cases.Point-of-care availability of an evidence-based guideline and interventions targeted at provider engagement improved adherence to a new guideline for neonatal HSV management and decreased acyclovir use in non-high-risk infants. Further study is necessary to confirm the safety of these recommendations in other settings.

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