The burden of mental ill health associated with childhood maltreatment in the UK, using The Health Improvement Network database: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

Abstract: Childhood maltreatment is a global public health, human rights, and moral issue that is associated with a substantial mental health burden. We aimed to assess the association between childhood […]

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Multicenter prospective clinical study to evaluate children short-term neurodevelopmental outcome in congenital heart disease (children NEURO-HEART): study protocol.

Abstract: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent congenital malformation affecting 1 in 100 newborns. While advances in early diagnosis and postnatal management have increased survival in CHD children, […]

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The role of prenatal stress as a pathway to personality disorder: longitudinal birth cohort study.

Abstract: Many studies have reported associations between prenatal stress and the development of psychotic, anxiety and depressive disorders; however, to date no studies have investigated potential associations with personality disorders.This […]

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A longitudinal study of eating behaviours in childhood and later eating disorder behaviours and diagnoses.

Abstract: Eating behaviours in childhood are considered as risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and diagnoses in adolescence. However, few longitudinal studies have examined this association.AimsWe investigated associations between childhood […]

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Anatomical patterns of cleft lip and palate deformities among neonates in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; implication of environmental impact.

Cleft lip and palate deformities are considered one of the most common birth defects of the head and neck that pose significant medical, psychosocial and financial burdens on the affected individuals and families, especially in low income communities. The etiology and pathogenesis of cleft lip and palate is complex and is known to involve genetic and/or environmental factors.To assess the patterns of anatomical cleft lip and palate deformities among neonates in Mekelle and Ayder Comprehensive Specialized hospitals, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted from May 2017 to June 2017 at Mekelle and Ayder Comprehensive Specialized hospitals, both in Mekelle city. Data was collected from all medical charts of neonates registered from 2011 to 2016 and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and OpenEpi software. Results were presented using tables and graphs; Chi-square test was used to look for an association between variables, odds ratio to determine the strength of association of selected variables using multinomial logistic regression model, while Fisher Exact (Clopper-Pearson) was used to compare yearly prevalence.Of 37,152 neonatal charts analyzed, 119 (0.32%) cases were identified as having cleft deformities. 38.7, 17.6, and 43.7% of this figure had cleft lips, cleft palates and both cleft lip and palate respectively. 46 (38.7%) neonates had lateral patterns of cleft lip deformities with 56.5% located unilaterally on the right and 43.5% unilaterally on the left. Of 52 (43.7%) neonates with cleft lip and palate deformities, 40.4% were located bilaterally while 38.5 and 21.2% were located unilaterally on the left and right, respectively. Associated malformations were: cardiac (3.4%), central nervous system (1.7%) and limb deformities (5.9%). The overall prevalence of cleft deformities was found to be 3.11 per 1000 live births.The study showed a higher prevalence of cleft deformities than that reported in Addis Ababa and some other African countries. A higher occurrence of left unilateral pattern of cleft lip and palate was observed whereas a higher right unilateral pattern of cleft lip was identified. The higher prevalence of cleft lip and palate recorded in this region of Ethiopia may reflect an environmental impact.

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Neurodevelopmental delay in normocephalic children with in utero exposure to Zika virus.

Neurodevelopment in 29 normocephalic children with in utero exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV) was evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition. Ten (35%) infants presented neurodevelopment delay. Language, cognitive and motor delays were identified in 9 (31%), 4 (14%) and 1 (3%) infants, respectively. Children exposed to ZIKV in utero must undergo careful evaluations for the early detection of any neurodevelopment delays in order to implement prompt intervention.

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Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants With Retinopathy of Prematurity by Treatment.

Among extremely preterm infants, we evaluated whether bevacizumab therapy compared with surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with adverse outcomes in early childhood.This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on preterm (22-26 + 6/7 weeks’ gestational age) infants admitted to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers who received bevacizumab or surgery exclusively for ROP. The primary outcome was death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 26 months’ corrected age (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition cognitive or motor composite score <70, Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale level ?2, bilateral blindness or hearing impairment).The cohort (N = 405; 214 [53%] boys; median [interquartile range] gestational age: 24.6 [23.9-25.3] weeks) included 181 (45%) infants who received bevacizumab and 224 (55%) who underwent ROP surgery. Infants treated with bevacizumab had a lower median (interquartile range) birth weight (640 [541-709] vs 660 [572.5-750] g; P = .02) and longer durations of conventional ventilation (35 [21-58] vs 33 [18-49] days; P = .04) and supplemental oxygen (112 [94-120] vs 105 [84.5-120] days; P = .01). Death or severe NDI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 2.14) and severe NDI (aOR 1.14; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.70) did not differ between groups. Odds of death (aOR 2.54 [95% CI 1.42 to 4.55]; P = .002), a cognitive score <85 (aOR 1.78 [95% CI 1.09 to 2.91]; P = .02), and a Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale level ?2 (aOR 1.73 [95% CI 1.04 to 2.88]; P = .04) were significantly higher with bevacizumab therapy.In this multicenter cohort of preterm infants, ROP treatment modality was not associated with differences in death or NDI, but the bevacizumab group had higher mortality and poor cognitive outcomes in early childhood. These data reveal the need for a rigorous appraisal of ROP therapy.

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Study of Environmental Enteropathy and Malnutrition (SEEM) in Pakistan: protocols for biopsy based biomarker discovery and validation.

Environmental Enteropathy (EE), characterized by alterations in intestinal structure, function, and immune activation, is believed to be an important contributor to childhood undernutrition and its associated morbidities, including stunting. Half of all global deaths in children ?0) children. Blood, urine, and fecal samples, for evaluation of potential biomarkers, will be collected at various time points from all participants (longitudinal analyses). Participants will receive appropriate educational and nutritional interventions; non-responders will undergo further evaluation to determine eligibility for further workup, including upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histopathological changes in duodenal biopsies will be compared with duodenal biopsies obtained from USA controls who have celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, or who were found to have normal histopathology. RNA-Seq will be employed to characterize mucosal gene expression across groups. Duodenal biopsies, luminal aspirates from the duodenum, and fecal samples will be analyzed to define microbial community composition (omic analyses). The relationship between histopathology, mucosal gene expression, and community configuration will be assessed using a variety of bioinformatic tools to gain better understanding of disease pathogenesis and to identify mechanism-based biomarkers. Ethical review committees at all collaborating institutions have approved this study. All results will be made available to the scientific community.Operational and ethical constraints for safely obtaining intestinal biopsies from children in resource-poor settings have led to a paucity of human tissue-based investigations to understand and reverse EE in vulnerable populations. Furthermore, EE biomarkers have rarely been correlated with gold standard histopathological confirmation. The Study of Environmental Enteropathy and Malnutrition (SEEM) is designed to better understand the pathophysiology, predictors, biomarkers, and potential management strategies of EE to inform strategies to eradicate this debilitating pathology and accelerate progress towards the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.Retrospectively registered; clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT03588013 .

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Second-generation antipsychotic drugs and short-term somatic serious adverse events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Antipsychotic drugs might cause acutely occurring, serious side-effects and thus contribute to the increased physical morbidity and mortality observed in patients with severe mental health disorders. We examined this hypothesis by doing a meta-analysis of International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice-defined serious adverse events occurring in placebo-controlled trials of antipsychotics.For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing second-generation antipsychotics with placebo. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, BIOSIS, PsycINFO, PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for trials published in any language from database inception up until Jan 27, 2017. Trials were included without limitations in population (diagnostic category, age, sex, ethnicity), dosing regimen, blinding status, duration, or publication year. Only psychological studies lasting less than 1 day and trials done in mainland China were excluded. We contacted pharmaceutical companies, drug regulatory authorities, and study investigators for additional data. The primary outcome was the number of patients with at least one somatic serious adverse event. We estimated minimum and maximum numbers of patients with the outcome in each study group and synthesised the results with odds ratios (ORs) in a common-effects meta-analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016033930.We identified 597 RCTs, comprising 108?664 participants, that met the inclusion criteria. 314 trials (67?642 participants) with details on individual serious adverse events available constituted the main dataset for meta-analysis. 88% of these were 13 weeks (approximately 3 months) or shorter in duration (median 6 weeks, IQR 4-9). At least one somatic serious adverse event occurred in 698 (1·63%) to 862 (2·02%) of 42?600 patients on antipsychotics, and in 343 (1·37%) to 419 (1·67%) of 25?042 patients on placebo. The odds ratios (ORs) were 1·24 (95% CI 1·08-1·42) and 1·24 (1·10-1·41) based on the minimum and maximum estimate, respectively. In predefined subgroup analyses we found evidence suggesting a larger effect in older patients (>65 years; OR 1·56, 95% CI 1·22-1·98; 1·58, 1·25-1·99) as compared with adults (18-65 years; 1·09, 0·91-1·29; 1·10, 0·95-1·28); likewise in children or adolescents (<18 years) although the evidence was more uncertain (1·49, 0·81-2·75; 1·54, 0·85-2·77). Of 597 included RCTs, 30 (5%), 358 (60%), and 209 (35%) were rated at high, moderate, or low risk of bias, respectively. ?2 was zero for both analyses of the primary outcome (minimum estimate, maximum estimate). A Bayesian sensitivity analysis using external information on heterogeneity gave similar results.We found evidence that antipsychotics cause short-term somatic serious adverse events on top of somatic serious adverse events occurring independent of treatment. This effect appears to be mainly driven by results in older patients. Hence, clinicians should be aware that antipsychotics are potentially toxic, particularly when treating patients sharing risk factors with the older population.German Ministry of Education and Research.

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L-Methylfolate Calcium Supplementation in Adolescents and Children: A Retrospective Analysis.

Previous studies have shown l-methylfolate to be a safe and beneficial therapy for neuropsychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in adults. The purpose of this study was to assess safety and describe patient experience using l-methylfolate calcium in a real-world pediatric and adolescent population. A retrospective chart review of patients (7 to 20?y of age, mean age 16?y) prescribed l-methylfolate calcium at a psychiatry clinic in Amherst, NY, between January 1, 2010 and November 10, 2015 was conducted. Patients to whom l-methylfolate calcium 15?mg/d (n=139) or 7.5?mg/d (n=7) was administered were identified; 44 patients who were prescribed but to whom l-methylfolate calcium was not administered were included as a comparator population. Common neuropsychiatric diagnoses included anxiety disorders (68% in the treatment population vs. 50% in the comparator population) and mood disorders (57% in the treatment population vs. 52% in the comparator population). Antidepressants (69% vs. 55%) and mood stabilizers or antiepileptic drugs (63% vs. 57%) were frequently prescribed in combination with l-methylfolate calcium. Adverse events occurred less frequently in the treated population, possibly due to the addition of l-methylfolate calcium (10% vs. 25%, P=0.02). The most common adverse events in the treated population were impaired sleep (5 patients) and increased anxiety (3 patients). Rates of laboratory abnormalities did not differ significantly between the treated and comparator populations (P=0.13). Positive subjective treatment experiences were reported by 22.5% of treated patients and negative subjective treatment experiences were reported by 5.4% of treated patients. L-methylfolate calcium was well-tolerated in a pediatric/adolescent population and may provide benefits for patients with a range of neuropsychiatric conditions.

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Suicidal risk factors in major affective disorders.

Rates and risk factors for suicidal behaviour require updating and comparisons among mood disorders.AimsTo identify factors associated with suicidal risk in major mood disorders.We considered risk factors before, during and after intake assessments of 3284 adults with/without suicidal acts, overall and with bipolar disorder (BD) versus major depressive disorder (MDD), using bivariate comparisons, multivariable regression modelling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.Suicidal prevalence was greater in BD versus MDD: ideation, 29.2 versus 17.3%; attempts, 18.8 versus 4.78%; suicide, 1.73 versus 0.48%; attempts/suicide ratio indicated similar lethality, 10.9 versus 9.96. Suicidal acts were associated with familial BD or suicide, being divorced/unmarried, fewer children, early abuse/trauma, unemployment, younger onset, longer illness, more dysthymic or cyclothymic temperament, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance misuse, mixed features, hospital admission, percentage time unwell, less antidepressants and more antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Logistic regression found five independent factors: hospital admission, more depression at intake, BD diagnosis, onset age ?25 years and mixed features. These factors were more associated with suicidal acts in BD than MDD: percentage time depressed/ill, alcohol misuse, >4 pre-intake depressions, more dysthymic/cyclothymic temperament and prior abuse/trauma. ADHD and total years ill were similar in BD and MDD; other factors were more associated with MDD. By ROC analysis, area under the curve was 71.3%, with optimal sensitivity (76%) and specificity (55%) with any two factors.Suicidal risks were high in mood disorders: ideation was highest with BD type II, attempts and suicides (especially violent) with BD type I. Several risk factors for suicidal acts differed between BD versus MDD patients.Declaration of interestNo author or immediate family member has financial relationships with commercial entities that might appear to represent potential conflicts of interest with the information presented.

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Family Chaos and Asthma Control.

Asthma is a highly prevalent childhood chronic disease, with particularly high rates among poor and minority youth. Psychosocial factors have been linked to asthma severity but remain poorly understood. This study examined (1) relationships between parent and child depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, family functioning, and child asthma control in a sample of urban minority youth with uncontrolled asthma and (2) family functioning as a pathway linking parent depression and asthma outcomes.Data were drawn from the baseline cohort of a randomized trial testing community interventions for children aged 5 to 16 with uncontrolled asthma (N = 223; mean age = 9.37, SD = 3.02; 85.2% Hispanic). Asthma control was defined by using the Asthma Control Test and Childhood Asthma Control Test, activity limitation, and previous-12-month asthma severity. Psychosocial measures included parent and child depression and PTSD symptoms, family chaos, and parent social support.Parent and child depression symptoms, but not PTSD, were associated with worse asthma control (? = -.20 [SE = 0.06] and ? = -.12 [SE = -.03]; P < .001). Family chaos corresponded to worse asthma control, even when controlling for parent and child depression (? = -.33; [SE = 0.15]; P < .05), and was a mediator of the parent depression-asthma path. Emotional triggers of asthma also mediated the parent depression-asthma relationship.Findings highlight family chaos as a mechanism underlying the relationship between parent depression and child asthma control. Addressing parent and child depression, family routines, and predictability may optimize asthma outcomes.

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Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Adolescents With Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Toxicity.

Adolescents represent the largest age group that presents to emergency departments (ED) for synthetic cannabinoid (SC) toxicity; however, the neurotoxic effects of acute SC exposures in this group are understudied. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychiatric presentation of adolescents with SC-related exposure in the ED compared with those with traditional cannabis exposure.A multicenter registry of clinical information prospectively collected by medical toxicologists (Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry) was reviewed for adolescents presenting to the ED after SC or cannabis exposure from 2010 through 2018. Associations were measured between drug exposures and neuropsychiatric symptoms and/or signs. Exposures were classified into 4 groups: SC-only exposure, SC-polydrug exposures, cannabis-only exposure, and cannabis-polydrug exposures.Adolescents presenting to the ED with SC-only exposure (n = 107) had higher odds of coma and/or central nervous system depression (odds ratio [OR] 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-7.75) and seizures (OR 3.89; 95% CI 1.39-10.94) than those with cannabis-only exposure (n = 86). SC-only drug exposure was associated with lower odds of agitation than cannabis-only exposure (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.10-0.34). In contrast, the group with SC-polydrug exposures (n = 38) had higher odds of agitation (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.56-7.44) and seizures (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.80-12.74) than the cannabis-polydrug exposures group (n = 117).In this multisite cohort of US adolescents assessed in the ED, SC exposure was associated with higher odds of neuropsychiatric morbidity than cannabis exposure providing a distinct neurospychiatric profile of acute SC toxicity in adolescents.

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Toxicity of Bupropion Overdose Compared With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

Adolescent depression and attempted and completed suicide are increasing in the United States. Because suicide is often impulsive, the means of self-harm are frequently items of convenience like medication. Authors of a recent study compared tricyclic antidepressant overdose to bupropion overdose. Fluoxetine and escitalopram are the only agents with Food and Drug Administration approval for pediatric depression, but off-label bupropion prescriptions are common. We sought to compare the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and bupropion in overdose.This was an analysis of the National Poison Data System from June 2013 through December 2017 for adolescent (ages 10-19) exposures to SSRIs or bupropion coded as “suspected suicide.” Demographics, clinical effects, therapies, and medical outcome were analyzed.There were 30?026 cases during the study period. Sertraline and fluoxetine accounted for nearly 60%, whereas bupropion was reported in 11.7%. Bupropion exposure was significantly associated with death (0.23% vs 0%; P < .001) or serious outcome (58.1% vs 19%; P < .001) as well as the 10 most common clinical effects, including seizures (27.0% vs 8.5%; P < .001) and hallucinations (28.6% vs 4.3%; P < .001). Bupropion exposure was significantly associated with the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.51% vs 0.01%; P < .001), intubation (4.9% vs 0.3%; P < .001), vasopressors (1.1% vs 0.2%; P < .001), and benzodiazepines (34.2% vs 5.5%; P < .001). There was a significant increase in all exposures and in proportion of serious outcomes over time.Adolescents who attempt self-harm are at higher risk for serious morbidity and poor outcomes with bupropion than with SSRIs. These risks, and the patient's propensity for self-harm, should be evaluated when therapy with bupropion is considered.

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Mobile device and app use in paediatric emergency care: a survey of departmental practice in the UK and Ireland.

Mobile devices and medical apps are used by healthcare professionals in adult and paediatric emergency departments worldwide. Recently, there has been a drive toward increased digitalisation especially in the UK. This point prevalence survey aims to describe hardware and software provision and their use in paediatric emergency care in the UK and Ireland.A web-based self-report questionnaire of member sites of an international paediatric emergency research collaborative was performed. A lead site investigator completed the survey on behalf of each site.Of the 54 sites, 46 (85%) responded. At 10 (21.7%) sites, the use of a personal mobile device at the bedside was not allowed; however, this was only enforced at 4 (8.7%) of these sites. Apple iOS devices accounted for the majority (70%) of institutional mobile devices. Most sites provided between 1 and 5 medical apps on the institutional mobile device. The British National Formulary (BNF/BNFc) app was the app which was most frequently provided and recommended. No site reported any harm from medical app use.The breadth of app use was relatively low. There was variability in trust guidance on app use and challenges in accessibility of Wi-Fi and devices.

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Adolescent Mental Health Program Components and Behavior Risk Reduction: A Meta-analysis.

Although adolescent mental health interventions are widely implemented, little consensus exists about elements comprising successful models.We aimed to identify effective program components of interventions to promote mental health and prevent mental disorders and risk behaviors during adolescence and to match these components across these key health outcomes to inform future multicomponent intervention development.A total of 14?600 records were identified, and 158 studies were included.Studies included universally delivered psychosocial interventions administered to adolescents ages 10 to 19. We included studies published between 2000 and 2018, using PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Embase, and Applied Social Sciences Index Abstracts databases. We included randomized controlled, cluster randomized controlled, factorial, and crossover trials. Outcomes included positive mental health, depressive and anxious symptomatology, violence perpetration and bullying, and alcohol and other substance use.Data were extracted by 3 researchers who identified core components and relevant outcomes. Interventions were separated by modality; data were analyzed by using a robust variance estimation meta-analysis model, and we estimated a series of single-predictor meta-regression models using random effects.Universally delivered interventions can improve adolescent mental health and reduce risk behavior. Of 7 components with consistent signals of effectiveness, 3 had significant effects over multiple outcomes (interpersonal skills, emotional regulation, and alcohol and drug education).Most included studies were from high-income settings, limiting the applicability of these findings to low- and middle-income countries. Our sample included only trials.Three program components emerged as consistently effective across different outcomes, providing a basis for developing future multioutcome intervention programs.

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