Management of Osteoporosis in Survivors of Adult Cancers With Nonmetastatic Disease: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline.

Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide evidence-based guidance on the management of osteoporosis in survivors of adult cancer.ASCO convened a multidisciplinary Expert Panel to develop guideline recommendations […]

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Endocrine treatment versus chemotherapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Abstract: Although international guidelines support the administration of hormone therapies with or without targeted therapies in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, upfront use of chemotherapy remains common […]

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Gynecologic cancers in pregnancy: guidelines based on a third international consensus meeting.

Abstract: We aimed to provide comprehensive protocols and promote effective management of pregnant women with gynecological cancers. New insights and more experience have been gained since the previous guidelines were […]

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Chromosomal Abnormalities and Prognosis in NPM1-Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data From Nine International Cohorts.

Abstract: Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3) […]

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Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis and Treatment in Patients With Cancer: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update.

Abstract: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer.PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses […]

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18F-fluciclovine PET-CT and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT in patients with early biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy: a prospective, single-centre, single-arm, comparative imaging trial.

Abstract: National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines consider 18F-fluciclovine PET-CT for prostate cancer biochemical recurrence localisation after radical prostatectomy, whereas European Association of Urology guidelines recommend prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-CT. […]

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Estimating the Benefits of Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer The St Gallen International Consensus Guidelines for the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2019.

Abstract: The 17th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2019 in Vienna, Austria reviewed substantial new evidence on loco-regional and systemic therapies for early breast cancer. Treatments were assessed in […]

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Level of evidence used in recommendations by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines beyond Food and Drug Administration approvals.

Abstract: A previous analysis of 113 National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) recommendations reported that NCCN frequently recommends beyond Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications (44 off-label recommendations) and claimed […]

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Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: MASCC/ISOO/ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline.

To provide guidance regarding best practices in the prevention and management of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in patients with cancer.Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) and ASCO convened a multidisciplinary Expert Panel to evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendations. Guideline development involved a systematic review of the literature and a formal consensus process. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies of the prevention and management of MRONJ related to bone-modifying agents (BMAs) for oncologic indications published between January 2009 and December 2017. Results from an earlier systematic review (2003 to 2008) were also included.The systematic review identified 132 publications, only 10 of which were randomized controlled trials. Recommendations underwent two rounds of consensus voting.Currently, MRONJ is defined by (1) current or previous treatment with a BMA or angiogenic inhibitor, (2) exposed bone or bone that can be probed through an intraoral or extraoral fistula in the maxillofacial region and that has persisted for longer than 8 weeks, and (3) no history of radiation therapy to the jaws or metastatic disease to the jaws. In patients who initiate a BMA, preventive care includes comprehensive dental assessments, discussion of modifiable risk factors, and avoidance of elective dentoalveolar surgery (ie, surgery that involves the teeth or contiguous alveolar bone) during BMA treatment. It remains uncertain whether BMAs should be discontinued before dentoalveolar surgery. Staging of MRONJ should be performed by a clinician with experience in the management of MRONJ. Conservative measures comprise the initial approach to MRONJ treatment. Ongoing collaboration among the dentist, dental specialist, and oncologist is essential to optimal patient care.

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NBTXR3, a first-in-class radioenhancer hafnium oxide nanoparticle, plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (Act.In.Sarc): a multicentre, phase 2-3, randomised, controlled trial.

Pathological complete response to preoperative treatment in adults with soft-tissue sarcoma can be achieved in only a few patients receiving radiotherapy. This phase 2-3 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of the hafnium oxide (HfO2) nanoparticle NBTXR3 activated by radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone as a pre-operative treatment in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma.Act.In.Sarc is a phase 2-3 randomised, multicentre, international trial. Adults (aged ?18 years) with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity or trunk wall, of any histological grade, and requiring preoperative radiotherapy were included. Patients had to have a WHO performance status of 0-2 and a life expectancy of at least 6 months. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web response system to receive either NBTXR3 (volume corresponding to 10% of baseline tumour volume at a fixed concentration of 53·3?g/L) as a single intratumoural administration before preoperative external-beam radiotherapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions) or radiotherapy alone, followed by surgery. Randomisation was stratified by histological subtype (myxoid liposarcoma vs others). This was an open-label study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a pathological complete response, assessed by a central pathology review board following European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines in the intention-to-treat population full analysis set. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one puncture and injection of NBTXR3 or at least one dose of radiotherapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02379845, and is ongoing for long-term follow-up, but recruitment is complete.Between March 3, 2015, and Nov 21, 2017, 180 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned and 179 started treatment: 89 in the NBTXR3 plus radiotherapy group and 90 in the radiotherapy alone group. Two patients in the NBTXR3 group and one patient in the radiotherapy group were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they were subsequently discovered to be ineligible; thus, a total of 176 patients were analysed for the primary endpoint in the intention-to-treat full analysis set (87 in the NBTXR3 group and 89 in the radiotherapy alone group). A pathological complete response was noted in 14 (16%) of 87 patients in the NBTXR3 group and seven (8%) of 89 in the radiotherapy alone group (p=0·044). In both treatment groups, the most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse event was postoperative wound complication (eight [9%] of 89 patients in the NBTXR3 group and eight [9%] of 90 in the radiotherapy alone group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events related to NBTXR3 administration were injection site pain (four [4%] of 89) and hypotension (four [4%]) and the most common grade 3-4 radiotherapy-related adverse event was radiation skin injury in both groups (five [6%] of 89 in the NBTXR3 group and four [4%] of 90 in the radiotherapy alone group). The most common treatment-emergent grade 3-4 adverse event related to NBTXR3 was hypotension (six [7%] of 89 patients). Serious adverse events were observed in 35 (39%) of 89 patients in the NBTXR3 group and 27 (30%) of 90 patients in the radiotherapy alone group. No treatment-related deaths occurred.This trial validates the mode of action of this new class of radioenhancer, which potentially opens a large field of clinical applications in soft-tissue sarcoma and possibly other cancers.Nanobiotix SA.

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Neoadjuvant Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus: A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter Controlled Study.

To compare the survival outcomes of neoadjuvant three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (RT) followed by hepatectomy with hepatectomy alone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT).A randomized, multicenter controlled study was conducted from January 2016 to December 2017 in patients with resectable HCC and PVTT. Patients were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant RT followed by hepatectomy (n = 82) or hepatectomy alone (n = 82). The modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) guidelines were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of RT. The primary end point was overall survival. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients’ serum before RT and in surgical specimens was correlated with response to RT.In the neoadjuvant RT group, 17 patients (20.7%) had partial remission. The overall survival rates for the neoadjuvant RT group at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 89.0%, 75.2%, 43.9%, and 27.4%, respectively, compared with 81.7%, 43.1%, 16.7%, and 9.4% in the surgery-alone group (P < .001). The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 56.9%, 33.0%, 20.3%, and 13.3% versus 42.1%, 14.9%, 5.0%, and 3.3% (P < .001). On multivariable Cox regression analyses, neoadjuvant RT significantly reduced HCC-related mortality and HCC recurrence rates compared with surgery alone (hazard ratios, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.23 to 0.54; P < .001] and 0.45 [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64; P < .001]). Increased expressions of IL-6 in pre-RT serum and tumor tissues were significantly associated with resistance to RT.For patients with resectable HCC and PVTT, neoadjuvant RT provided significantly better postoperative survival outcomes than surgery alone. IL-6 may predict response to RT in these patients.

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MRI versus mammography for breast cancer screening in women with familial risk (FaMRIsc): a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial.

Approximately 15% of all breast cancers occur in women with a family history of breast cancer, but for whom no causative hereditary gene mutation has been found. Screening guidelines for women with familial risk of breast cancer differ between countries. We did a randomised controlled trial (FaMRIsc) to compare MRI screening with mammography in women with familial risk.In this multicentre, randomised, controlled trial done in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, women were eligible to participate if they were aged 30-55 years and had a cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk of at least 20% because of a familial predisposition, but were BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 wild-type. Participants who were breast-feeding, pregnant, had a previous breast cancer screen, or had a previous a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ were eligible, but those with a previously diagnosed invasive carcinoma were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography (MRI group) or annual mammography and clinical breast examination (mammography group). Randomisation was done via a web-based system and stratified by centre. Women who did not provide consent for randomisation could give consent for registration if they followed either the mammography group protocol or the MRI group protocol in a joint decision with their physician. Results from the registration group were only used in the analyses stratified by breast density. Primary outcomes were number, size, and nodal status of detected breast cancers. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NL2661.Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2017, 1355 women provided consent for randomisation and 231 for registration. 675 of 1355 women were randomly allocated to the MRI group and 680 to the mammography group. 218 of 231 women opting to be in a registration group were in the mammography registration group and 13 were in the MRI registration group. The mean number of screening rounds per woman was 4·3 (SD 1·76). More breast cancers were detected in the MRI group than in the mammography group (40 vs 15; p=0·0017). Invasive cancers (24 in the MRI group and eight in the mammography group) were smaller in the MRI group than in the mammography group (median size 9 mm [5-14] vs 17 mm [13-22]; p=0·010) and less frequently node positive (four [17%] of 24 vs five [63%] of eight; p=0·023). Tumour stages of the cancers detected at incident rounds were significantly earlier in the MRI group (12 [48%] of 25 in the MRI group vs one [7%] of 15 in the mammography group were stage T1a and T1b cancers; one (4%) of 25 in the MRI group and two (13%) of 15 in the mammography group were stage T2 or higher; p=0·035) and node-positive tumours were less frequent (two [11%] of 18 in the MRI group vs five [63%] of eight in the mammography group; p=0·014). All seven tumours stage T2 or higher were in the two highest breast density categories (breast imaging reporting and data system categories C and D; p=0·0077) One patient died from breast cancer during follow-up (mammography registration group).MRI screening detected cancers at an earlier stage than mammography. The lower number of late-stage cancers identified in incident rounds might reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and decrease breast cancer-related mortality. However, the advantages of the MRI screening approach might be at the cost of more false-positive results, especially at high breast density.Dutch Government ZonMw, Dutch Cancer Society, A Sister’s Hope, Pink Ribbon, Stichting Coolsingel, J&T Rijke Stichting.

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Role of Patient and Disease Factors in Adjuvant Systemic Therapy Decision Making for Early-Stage, Operable Breast Cancer: Update of the ASCO Endorsement of the Cancer Care Ontario Guideline.

To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology endorsement of the Cancer Care Ontario recommendations on the Role of Patient and Disease Factors in Adjuvant Systemic Therapy Decision Making for Early-Stage, Operable Breast Cancer.Two phase III trials-the Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment (TAILORx) in women with hormone receptor-positive, node-negative tumors and the Microarray in Node-Negative and 1 to 3 Positive Lymph Node Disease May Avoid Chemotherapy (MINDACT) trial-provided the evidence for this update.Shared decision making between clinicians and patients is appropriate for adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer. For patients older than age 50 years and whose tumors have Oncotype DX recurrence scores less than 26, and for patients age 50 years or younger whose tumors have Oncotype DX recurrence scores less than 16, there is little to no benefit from chemotherapy. Clinicians may offer endocrine therapy alone for these patients. For patients age 50 years or younger with recurrence scores of 16 to 25, clinicians may offer chemoendocrine therapy. Patients with recurrence scores greater than 30 should be considered candidates for chemoendocrine therapy. Based on informal consensus, the Panel recommends that oncologists may offer chemoendocrine therapy to patients with Oncotype DX scores of 26 to 30. The MammaPrint assay could be used to guide decisions on withholding adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive lymph node-negative breast cancer and in select patients with lymph node-positive cancers. In both patients with node-positive and node-negative disease, evidence of clinical utility of the MammaPrint assay was only apparent in those determined to be at high clinical risk; the Panel thus did not recommend use of MammaPrint assay in patients determined to be at low clinical risk. Remaining recommendations from the 2016 ASCO guideline endorsement are unchanged. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines .

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Potentially Curable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update.

The purpose of this guideline update is to incorporate recently reported practice-changing evidence into ASCO’s recommendations on potentially curable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.ASCO convened an Expert Panel to evaluate data from PRODIGE 24/CCTG PA.6, a phase III, multicenter, randomized clinical trial of postoperative leucovorin calcium, fluorouracil, irinotecan hydrochloride, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) versus gemcitabine alone, presented at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting. In addition, PubMed was searched for additional papers that may influence the existing recommendations.The Expert Panel only updated Recommendation 4.1 as a result of the practice-changing data. Recommendation 4.1 states that all patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma who did not receive preoperative therapy should be offered 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy in the absence of medical or surgical contraindications. The modified combination regimen of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (mFOLFIRINOX; oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, irinotecan 150 mg/m2 D1, and 5-fluorouracil 2.4 g/m2 over 46 hours every 14 days for 12 cycles) is now preferred in the absence of concerns for toxicity or tolerance; alternatively, doublet therapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine or monotherapy with gemcitabine alone or fluorouracil plus folinic acid alone can be offered. Additional information can be found at www.asco.org/gastrointestinal-cancer-guidelines .

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International myeloma working group consensus recommendations on imaging in monoclonal plasma cell disorders.

Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma have increased the need for accurate diagnosis of the disease. The detection of bone and bone marrow lesions is crucial in the investigation of multiple myeloma and often dictates the decision to start treatment. Furthermore, detection of minimal residual disease is important for prognosis determination and treatment planning, and it has underscored an unmet need for sensitive imaging methods that accurately assess patient response to multiple myeloma treatment. Low-dose whole-body CT has increased sensitivity compared with conventional skeletal survey in the detection of bone disease, which can reveal information leading to changes in therapy and disease management that could prevent or delay the onset of clinically significant morbidity and mortality as a result of skeletal-related events. Given the multiple options available for the detection of bone and bone marrow lesions, ranging from conventional skeletal survey to whole-body CT, PET/CT, and MRI, the International Myeloma Working Group decided to establish guidelines on optimal use of imaging methods at different disease stages. These recommendations on imaging within and outside of clinical trials will help standardise imaging for monoclonal plasma cell disorders worldwide to allow the comparison of results and the unification of treatment approaches for multiple myeloma.

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Use of Biomarkers to Guide Decisions on Adjuvant Systemic Therapy for Women With Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update-Integration of Results From TAILORx.

This focused update addresses the use of Oncotype DX in guiding decisions on the use of adjuvant systemic therapy.ASCO uses a signals approach to facilitate guideline updating. For this focused update, the publication of the Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment (TAILORx) evaluating noninferiority of endocrine therapy alone versus chemoendocrine therapy for invasive disease-free survival in women with Oncotype DX scores provided a signal. An expert panel reviewed the results of TAILORx along with other published literature on the Oncotype DX assay to assess for evidence of clinical utility.For patients with hormone receptor-positive, axillary node-negative breast cancer whose tumors have Oncotype DX recurrence scores of less than 26, there is little to no benefit from chemotherapy, especially for patients older than age 50 years. Clinicians may recommend endocrine therapy alone for women older than age 50 years. For patients 50 years of age or younger with recurrence scores of 16 to 25, clinicians may offer chemoendocrine therapy. Patients with recurrence scores greater than 30 should be considered candidates for chemoendocrine therapy. Based on informal consensus, the panel recommends that oncologists may offer chemoendocrine therapy to these patients with recurrence scores of 26 to 30. Additional information can be found at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines .

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