Growing evidence has suggested that epilepsy is a disease with alterations in brain connectivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the changes in brain connectivity can predict […]» Read more
Effectiveness, retention, and safety of modified ketogenic diet in adults with epilepsy at a tertiary-care centre in the UK.
With the rising demand for ketogenic diet therapy in adult epilepsy, there is a need for research describing the real-life effectiveness, retention, and safety of relevant services. In this 1-year […]» Read more
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulatory therapeutic option for drug-resistant epilepsy. In randomised controlled trials, VNS implantation has resulted in over 50% reduction in seizure frequency in 26%-40% of […]» Read more
Click here to read the full article @ The Lancet. Neurology» Read more
Long-term follow-up of a large cohort with focal epilepsy of unknown cause: deciphering their clinical and prognostic characteristics.
Focal epilepsy of unknown cause (FEUC) is an under-investigated topic despite its remarkable frequency. We aimed to report the long-term follow-up findings along with the drug-response, 5 year remission rates and […]» Read more
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of epilepsy-related mortality in young adults. It has been suggested that SUDEP may kill over 20 000 people with epilepsy […]» Read more
The impact of MEG results on surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy associated with focal encephalomalacia: a single-center experience.
To analyze the impact of magnetoencephalography (MEG) results on surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to encephalomalacia.We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy associated with encephalomalacia who […]» Read more
Abstract empty Click here to read the full article @ The Lancet. Neurology» Read more
Impact of chronic health conditions and injury on school performance and health outcomes in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective record linkage study protocol.
Abstract: Children who have sustained a serious injury or who have a chronic health condition, such as diabetes or epilepsy, may have their school performance adversely impacted by the condition, […]» Read more
Abstract: Temporal lobe epilepsy has been usually associated with progressive brain atrophy due to neuronal cell loss. However, recent animal models demonstrated a dual effect of epileptic seizures with initial […]» Read more
Levetiracetam and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation and epilepsy: a reasonable combination.
Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium in neurology: a prospective cohort study of 1487 patients.
Abstract: Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium are well known; however, their interaction and impact on delirium in neurological patients remains largely unknown. Therefore, those factors were evaluated in hospitalized […]» Read more
Abstract: Genomics now has an increasingly important role in neurology clinics. Regarding the epilepsies, innovations centred around technology, analytics, and collaboration have led to remarkable progress in gene discovery and […]» Read more
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) has influenced all aspects of human life and neurology is no exception to this growing trend. The aim of this paper is to guide medical practitioners […]» Read more
Abstract: Girls with pathogenic variants in FMR1, the gene responsible for Fragile X syndrome, have received relatively little attention in the literature. The reports of girls with trinucleotide expansions or […]» Read more
Abstract: Brain imaging with MRI identifies structural cerebral pathology that may give rise to seizures. The greatest yield is from MRI at 3T using epilepsy protocols, and reported by expert […]» Read more
Abstract: Epilepsy surgery offers the chance of seizure remission for the 30%-40% of patients with focal epilepsy whose seizures continue despite anti-epileptic medications. Epilepsy surgery encompasses curative resective procedures, palliative […]» Read more
Abstract: Epilepsy self-management practices enhance a patient’s competence and confidence in managing their chronic condition, which is assumed to lead to an improved quality of life (QoL). We analyzed the […]» Read more
Abstract: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterised by a well defined microdeletion that is associated with a high risk of neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum […]» Read more
In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical practice guideline that more specifically defined apparent life-threatening events as brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs) and provided evidence-based recommendations for the evaluation of infants who meet lower-risk criteria for a subsequent event or serious underlying disorder. The clinical practice guideline did not provide recommendations for infants meeting higher-risk criteria, an important and common population of patients. Therefore, we propose a tiered approach for clinical evaluation and management of higher-risk infants who have experienced a BRUE. Because of a vast array of potential causes, the initial evaluation prioritizes the diagnosis of time-sensitive conditions for which delayed diagnosis or treatment could impact outcomes, such as child maltreatment, feeding problems, cardiac arrhythmias, infections, and congenital abnormalities. The secondary evaluation addresses problems that are less sensitive to delayed diagnosis or treatment, such as dysphagia, intermittent partial airway obstruction, and epilepsy. The authors recommend a tailored, family-centered, multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management of all higher-risk infants with a BRUE, whether accomplished during hospital admission or through coordinated outpatient care. The proposed framework was developed by using available evidence and expert consensus.» Read more
Epilepsy affects up to 1-4% of children living in low income and middle countries, however there are few studies of the problems faced by children with epilepsy in such settings. We aimed to document the situation for children with epilepsy in Port Moresby, an urban area in Papua New Guinea, a low-middle income country in the Western Pacific region. We conducted longitudinal cohort study using mixed methods, with serial data collected over 2 years which assessed seizure control, neurodevelopment, and structured interviews with children and parents. For quantitative data descriptive statistics are reported; for qualitative data common responses, themes, experiences and perceptions were grouped and reported in narrative. Forty-seven children with epilepsy were followed for a median of 18 months. Twenty six (55%) children had some associated neurodevelopmental disability. Children gave detailed and vivid descriptions of their experience of seizures. Most children and parents had a positive view of the future but faced many challenges including financial difficulties, fear of having seizures especially at school, restriction of activity that isolated them from peers, and significant stigma and discrimination. Seizure control improved over time for some children, but inconsistent supply of phenobarbitone hindered better control. Comprehensive care for children with epilepsy requires a good knowledge of the individual patient -including their seizure type and comorbidities, their family, and their strengths and vulnerabilities. Children with epilepsy face many problems that can lead to isolation, discrimination and restricted opportunities.» Read more
Age, sex and ethnic differentials in the prevalence and control of epilepsy among Sri Lankan children: a population-based study.
To estimate the prevalence of childhood epilepsy in Sri Lanka by different age groups (0-5, 6-10 and 11-16 years), sex and ethnicity, and to describe the types and outcomes of epilepsy.A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the district considered to be ethnically most balanced in Sri Lanka. A door-to-door survey was performed in the 0-5?year age group (60 geographically defined areas as clusters; 19 children per cluster), and a school-based survey in the 6-16?year age group (150 classes as clusters; 25 children per cluster). The screened children with epilepsy were reviewed individually for confirmation of the diagnosis of epilepsy, typing of the underlying epilepsy syndrome and assessment of control. The same group of children were re-evaluated 1?year later to reconfirm the syndromic diagnosis and to assess the stability of control of epilepsy.The overall prevalence of childhood epilepsy was 5.7 per 10?000 children aged 0-16 years (95%?CI: 38 to 87). It was higher with younger ages (73.4 per 10?000 children aged 0-5 years; 55.1 per 10?000 children aged 6-10 years and 50.4 per 10?000 children aged 11-16 years). A male dominance was noted in both age groups. In each age group, the prevalence was highest in children of Sinhalese ethnicity. Symptomatic focal epilepsy was the single most common group of epilepsy in both age groups. Majority of children remained well controlled on medications.The findings indicate a relatively high burden of epilepsy among children in Sri Lanka, however, these were comparable to the burden of disease reported from other countries in the region.» Read more
To assess equity of access to paediatric outpatient clinics in our hospital.Retrospective analysis of consecutive accepted referrals to allergy, asthma, epilepsy, general paediatrics, rapid access, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes and endocrine outpatient clinics.32?369 new patients, April 2007 to June 2018.Among local patients (58.1%) 0.2%-2.5% of patients referred to each clinic lived in the least deprived quintile, and 43.5%-48.4% in the most deprived quintile-similar to inpatient admissions and the local population. Tertiary clinics showed a much higher proportion of patients from the least deprived quintiles (15.9%-26.2%).Local outpatient referrals broadly reflected the socioeconomic distribution, although not necessarily the distribution of need, of our local population. A relatively high proportion of patients in tertiary clinics were from more affluent postcodes, highlighting the need for referral inequalities to be evaluated across networks or regions.» Read more
Piperine-loaded nanoparticles with enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability for epilepsy control.
Piperine, an alkaloid from black pepper, has demonstrated beneficial effects in central nervous system, especially in epilepsy control. However, its therapeutic application remains limited due to the low aqueous solubility of piperine. Thus, the present study aimed to formulate piperine into a more solubilized form to enhance its oral bioavailability and facilitate its development as a potential anti-epileptic treatment. The nanoprecipitation method was applied to prepare piperine nanoparticles, which were then examined under transmission electron microscopy. A spherical nanosized particle was obtained with small particle size (average particle size 130.20?±?1.57?nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.195?±?0.002) and efficient entrapment (entrapment efficiency 92.2?±?2.5%). Compared with the unformulated piperine, nanosized piperine had a much faster dissolution rate with 3 times higher accumulated drug release after 24?h. After oral administration at 3.5?mg/kg in rats, the nanosized piperine formulations could improve its oral bioavailability by 2.7-fold with 16 times higher concentrations in brain at 10?h postdosing. Moreover, the piperine nanoparticles exhibited effective protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in both zebrafish and mice. In summary, the present study provided a simple formulation strategy for oral administration of piperine to overcome its limitation in water solubility. The developed formulations could effectively enhance oral bioavailability of piperine with promising anti-epileptic effect, which could be applied as a potential therapy in epilepsy control.» Read more
Late Health Outcomes After Contemporary Lymphome Malin de Burkitt Therapy for Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
The widely used, risk-based Lymphome Malin de Burkitt (LMB) chemotherapy regimen has improved survival rates for children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, associated late effects remain understudied. We assessed late health outcomes after LMB treatment in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.Multivariable regression models compared chronic health conditions, health status, and socioeconomic and neurocognitive outcomes between survivors of NHL treated with the LMB regimen (n = 126), survivors of NHL treated with non-LMB regimens (n = 444), and siblings (n = 1,029).LMB survivors were a median age of 10.2 years (range, 2.5 to 20.5 years) at diagnosis and 24.0 years (range, 10.3 to 35.3 years) at evaluation. Compared with siblings, LMB survivors were at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. However, survivors of NHL treated with LMB and non-LMB regimens did not differ with regard to risk of having any chronic health conditions, impaired health status, neurocognitive deficits, or poorer socioeconomic outcomes. Increased risk for the following specific neurologic conditions was observed in LMB survivors compared with non-LMB survivors: epilepsy (relative risk [RR], 15.2; 95% CI, 3.1 to 73.4); balance problems (RR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.8); tremors (RR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 29.9); weakness in legs (RR, 8.1; 95% CI, 2.5 to 26.4); severe headaches (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.3); and prolonged arm, leg, or back pain (RR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.2 to 7.1). The survivors from the group C LMB risk group (n = 50) were at the highest risk for these conditions; however, except for worse functional status (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.8), they were not at increased risk for other adverse health status or socioeconomic outcomes compared with non-LMB survivors.Survivors treated with LMB and non-LMB regimens are largely comparable in late health outcomes except for excess neurotoxicity among LMB survivors. These data inform treatment efforts seeking to optimize disease control while minimizing toxicity.» Read more
Seizure frequency, healthcare resource utilisation and mortality in childhood epilepsy: a retrospective cohort study using the THIN database.
To understand the association of seizure frequency with healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) and mortality in UK children with epilepsy (CWE).Retrospective cohort study.Routinely collected data in primary care from The Health Improvement Network UK database.CWE ?1?and<18 years of age with a record of seizure frequency were included in mortality analyses from 2005 to 2015 and HCRU analyses from 2010 to 2015.Frequency of HCRU contacts during the year following latest seizure frequency and mortality (descriptive and Cox proportional hazards regression) from first record of seizure frequency.Higher seizure frequency was related to increased HCRU utilisation and mortality. In negative binomial regression, each category increase in seizure frequency related to 11% more visits to general practitioners, 35% more inpatient admissions, 15% more outpatient visits and increased direct HCRU costs (24%). 11 patients died during 12?490 patient-years follow-up. The unadjusted HR of mortality per higher category of seizure frequency was 2.56 (95% CI: 1.52 to 4.31). Adjustment for age and number of prescribed anti-epileptic drugs at index attenuated this estimate to 2.11 (95% CI: 1.24 to 3.60).Higher seizure frequency is associated with greater HCRU and mortality in CWE in the UK. Improvement in seizure control may potentially lead to better patient outcomes and reduced healthcare use.» Read more
Once adults with long-standing idiopathic generalised epilepsy have achieved stable seizure remission, patients or physicians may attempt to discontinue their antiepileptic drug treatment. To date, risk of subsequent seizure relapse across the four idiopathic generalised epilepsy syndromes is largely unknown, and so are the clinical variables associated.For this retrospective observational study, 256 adult outpatients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy were evaluated. Data were obtained from outpatient charts and, if possible, from additional telephone or mail interviews.In 84 patients (33%), antiepileptic medication was discontinued at least once. Median patient age at antiepileptic drug withdrawal was 33 years, and median duration of subsequent follow-up was 20 years. Seizures recurred in 46% of patients after a median latency of 11 months. Following multivariable analysis, seizure relapse was independently associated with short duration of seizure remission beforehand. If medication was withdrawn after?5 years of seizure freedom, two-thirds of patients had a seizure relapse, while among those in remission for???5 years, only one-third relapsed.Discontinuation of antiepileptic drug treatment can be successful in every other adult with long-standing idiopathic generalised epilepsy. Short duration of prior seizure remission appears to be a relevant predictor of seizure recurrence.» Read more
Abstract: To describe the long-term prognosis of epilepsy and prognostic patterns in a large cohort of newly diagnosed patients and identify prognostic factors.Study participants were 13 Italian epilepsy centres with […]» Read more