Expert opinion: use of valproate in girls and women of childbearing potential with epilepsy: recommendations and alternatives based on a review of the literature and clinical experience-a European perspective.

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Valproate is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) of particular interest in pediatric epilepsy syndromes and idiopathic generalized epilepsy, as it is relatively more effective in these syndromes than other AEDs. […]

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Effectiveness, retention, and safety of modified ketogenic diet in adults with epilepsy at a tertiary-care centre in the UK.

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With the rising demand for ketogenic diet therapy in adult epilepsy, there is a need for research describing the real-life effectiveness, retention, and safety of relevant services. In this 1-year […]

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Long-term follow-up of a large cohort with focal epilepsy of unknown cause: deciphering their clinical and prognostic characteristics.

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Focal epilepsy of unknown cause (FEUC) is an under-investigated topic despite its remarkable frequency. We aimed to report the long-term follow-up findings along with the drug-response, 5 year remission rates and […]

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Impact of chronic health conditions and injury on school performance and health outcomes in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective record linkage study protocol.

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Abstract: Children who have sustained a serious injury or who have a chronic health condition, such as diabetes or epilepsy, may have their school performance adversely impacted by the condition, […]

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Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium in neurology: a prospective cohort study of 1487 patients.

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Abstract: Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium are well known; however, their interaction and impact on delirium in neurological patients remains largely unknown. Therefore, those factors were evaluated in hospitalized […]

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Neurobiological perspective of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Abstract: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterised by a well defined microdeletion that is associated with a high risk of neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum […]

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A Framework for Evaluation of the Higher-Risk Infant After a Brief Resolved Unexplained Event.

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In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical practice guideline that more specifically defined apparent life-threatening events as brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs) and provided evidence-based recommendations for the evaluation of infants who meet lower-risk criteria for a subsequent event or serious underlying disorder. The clinical practice guideline did not provide recommendations for infants meeting higher-risk criteria, an important and common population of patients. Therefore, we propose a tiered approach for clinical evaluation and management of higher-risk infants who have experienced a BRUE. Because of a vast array of potential causes, the initial evaluation prioritizes the diagnosis of time-sensitive conditions for which delayed diagnosis or treatment could impact outcomes, such as child maltreatment, feeding problems, cardiac arrhythmias, infections, and congenital abnormalities. The secondary evaluation addresses problems that are less sensitive to delayed diagnosis or treatment, such as dysphagia, intermittent partial airway obstruction, and epilepsy. The authors recommend a tailored, family-centered, multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management of all higher-risk infants with a BRUE, whether accomplished during hospital admission or through coordinated outpatient care. The proposed framework was developed by using available evidence and expert consensus.

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Epilepsy in Papua New Guinea: a longitudinal cohort study.

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Epilepsy affects up to 1-4% of children living in low income and middle countries, however there are few studies of the problems faced by children with epilepsy in such settings. We aimed to document the situation for children with epilepsy in Port Moresby, an urban area in Papua New Guinea, a low-middle income country in the Western Pacific region. We conducted longitudinal cohort study using mixed methods, with serial data collected over 2 years which assessed seizure control, neurodevelopment, and structured interviews with children and parents. For quantitative data descriptive statistics are reported; for qualitative data common responses, themes, experiences and perceptions were grouped and reported in narrative. Forty-seven children with epilepsy were followed for a median of 18 months. Twenty six (55%) children had some associated neurodevelopmental disability. Children gave detailed and vivid descriptions of their experience of seizures. Most children and parents had a positive view of the future but faced many challenges including financial difficulties, fear of having seizures especially at school, restriction of activity that isolated them from peers, and significant stigma and discrimination. Seizure control improved over time for some children, but inconsistent supply of phenobarbitone hindered better control. Comprehensive care for children with epilepsy requires a good knowledge of the individual patient -including their seizure type and comorbidities, their family, and their strengths and vulnerabilities. Children with epilepsy face many problems that can lead to isolation, discrimination and restricted opportunities.

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Age, sex and ethnic differentials in the prevalence and control of epilepsy among Sri Lankan children: a population-based study.

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To estimate the prevalence of childhood epilepsy in Sri Lanka by different age groups (0-5, 6-10 and 11-16 years), sex and ethnicity, and to describe the types and outcomes of epilepsy.A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the district considered to be ethnically most balanced in Sri Lanka. A door-to-door survey was performed in the 0-5?year age group (60 geographically defined areas as clusters; 19 children per cluster), and a school-based survey in the 6-16?year age group (150 classes as clusters; 25 children per cluster). The screened children with epilepsy were reviewed individually for confirmation of the diagnosis of epilepsy, typing of the underlying epilepsy syndrome and assessment of control. The same group of children were re-evaluated 1?year later to reconfirm the syndromic diagnosis and to assess the stability of control of epilepsy.The overall prevalence of childhood epilepsy was 5.7 per 10?000 children aged 0-16 years (95%?CI: 38 to 87). It was higher with younger ages (73.4 per 10?000 children aged 0-5 years; 55.1 per 10?000 children aged 6-10 years and 50.4 per 10?000 children aged 11-16 years). A male dominance was noted in both age groups. In each age group, the prevalence was highest in children of Sinhalese ethnicity. Symptomatic focal epilepsy was the single most common group of epilepsy in both age groups. Majority of children remained well controlled on medications.The findings indicate a relatively high burden of epilepsy among children in Sri Lanka, however, these were comparable to the burden of disease reported from other countries in the region.

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How fair is our service? Evaluating access to specialist paediatric care.

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To assess equity of access to paediatric outpatient clinics in our hospital.Retrospective analysis of consecutive accepted referrals to allergy, asthma, epilepsy, general paediatrics, rapid access, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes and endocrine outpatient clinics.32?369 new patients, April 2007 to June 2018.Among local patients (58.1%) 0.2%-2.5% of patients referred to each clinic lived in the least deprived quintile, and 43.5%-48.4% in the most deprived quintile-similar to inpatient admissions and the local population. Tertiary clinics showed a much higher proportion of patients from the least deprived quintiles (15.9%-26.2%).Local outpatient referrals broadly reflected the socioeconomic distribution, although not necessarily the distribution of need, of our local population. A relatively high proportion of patients in tertiary clinics were from more affluent postcodes, highlighting the need for referral inequalities to be evaluated across networks or regions.

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Piperine-loaded nanoparticles with enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability for epilepsy control.

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Piperine, an alkaloid from black pepper, has demonstrated beneficial effects in central nervous system, especially in epilepsy control. However, its therapeutic application remains limited due to the low aqueous solubility of piperine. Thus, the present study aimed to formulate piperine into a more solubilized form to enhance its oral bioavailability and facilitate its development as a potential anti-epileptic treatment. The nanoprecipitation method was applied to prepare piperine nanoparticles, which were then examined under transmission electron microscopy. A spherical nanosized particle was obtained with small particle size (average particle size 130.20?±?1.57?nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.195?±?0.002) and efficient entrapment (entrapment efficiency 92.2?±?2.5%). Compared with the unformulated piperine, nanosized piperine had a much faster dissolution rate with 3 times higher accumulated drug release after 24?h. After oral administration at 3.5?mg/kg in rats, the nanosized piperine formulations could improve its oral bioavailability by 2.7-fold with 16 times higher concentrations in brain at 10?h postdosing. Moreover, the piperine nanoparticles exhibited effective protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in both zebrafish and mice. In summary, the present study provided a simple formulation strategy for oral administration of piperine to overcome its limitation in water solubility. The developed formulations could effectively enhance oral bioavailability of piperine with promising anti-epileptic effect, which could be applied as a potential therapy in epilepsy control.

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Late Health Outcomes After Contemporary Lymphome Malin de Burkitt Therapy for Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

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The widely used, risk-based Lymphome Malin de Burkitt (LMB) chemotherapy regimen has improved survival rates for children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, associated late effects remain understudied. We assessed late health outcomes after LMB treatment in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.Multivariable regression models compared chronic health conditions, health status, and socioeconomic and neurocognitive outcomes between survivors of NHL treated with the LMB regimen (n = 126), survivors of NHL treated with non-LMB regimens (n = 444), and siblings (n = 1,029).LMB survivors were a median age of 10.2 years (range, 2.5 to 20.5 years) at diagnosis and 24.0 years (range, 10.3 to 35.3 years) at evaluation. Compared with siblings, LMB survivors were at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. However, survivors of NHL treated with LMB and non-LMB regimens did not differ with regard to risk of having any chronic health conditions, impaired health status, neurocognitive deficits, or poorer socioeconomic outcomes. Increased risk for the following specific neurologic conditions was observed in LMB survivors compared with non-LMB survivors: epilepsy (relative risk [RR], 15.2; 95% CI, 3.1 to 73.4); balance problems (RR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.8); tremors (RR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 29.9); weakness in legs (RR, 8.1; 95% CI, 2.5 to 26.4); severe headaches (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.3); and prolonged arm, leg, or back pain (RR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.2 to 7.1). The survivors from the group C LMB risk group (n = 50) were at the highest risk for these conditions; however, except for worse functional status (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.8), they were not at increased risk for other adverse health status or socioeconomic outcomes compared with non-LMB survivors.Survivors treated with LMB and non-LMB regimens are largely comparable in late health outcomes except for excess neurotoxicity among LMB survivors. These data inform treatment efforts seeking to optimize disease control while minimizing toxicity.

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