Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis following corticosteroid treatment: what is the evidence? A systematic review.

Bookmark this %label%

Corticosteroids (CS) are among the most widely- used immunosuppressive agents for immune-mediated conditions, including myasthenia gravis (MG). While their effectiveness in MG is documented and supported in the clinical practice […]

» Read more

Anti-CASPR2 clinical phenotypes correlate with HLA and immunological features.

Bookmark this %label%

Antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2-Abs) have been described in acquired neuromyotonia, limbic encephalitis (LE) and Morvan syndrome (MoS). However, it is unknown whether these constitute one sole spectrum of […]

» Read more

‘Minimal symptom expression’ in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalized myasthenia gravis treated with eculizumab.

Bookmark this %label%

The efficacy and tolerability of eculizumab were assessed in REGAIN, a 26-week, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), and its […]

» Read more

Rituximab in AChR subtype of myasthenia gravis: systematic review.

Bookmark this %label%

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction characterised by an autoantibody against acetylcholine receptor (AChR-Ab), autoantibody against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK-Ab), lipoprotein-related protein 4 or agrin […]

» Read more

Systematic review of the clinical spectrum of CASPR2 antibody syndrome.

Bookmark this %label%

Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) autoantibody disease has a variable clinical phenotype. We present a case report and performed a systematic review of the literature to summarize: (1) the clinical phenotype […]

» Read more

Role of complement and potential of complement inhibitors in myasthenia gravis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: a brief review.

Bookmark this %label%

Abstract: The complement system is a powerful member of the innate immune system. It is highly adept at protecting against pathogens, but exists in a delicate balance between its protective […]

» Read more

Clinical characteristics of autoimmune disorders in the central nervous system associated with myasthenia gravis.

Bookmark this %label%

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is occasionally associated with autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system (CNS), such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Morvan syndrome, and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Here, we report five original cases associated with autoimmune disorders in the CNS among 42 patients with MG in a single tertiary hospital in Japan (11.9%). In four of these five cases, the second disease developed when the preceding disease was unstable. Accurate diagnosis of the newly developing disease may be difficult in such cases, because some neurological symptoms can be seen in both disorders. This implies the great importance of recognizing the possible co-occurrence of MG and disorders in the CNS. In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature revealed distinct clinical characteristics depending on the associated disease in the CNS, including thymic pathology and temporal relationship between MG and associated CNS disorders. Notably, NMOSD usually develops after the onset of MG and thymectomy, in clear contrast to MS. Thymoma is highly prevalent among patients with Morvan syndrome, in contract to cases with NMOSD and MS. The analysis of clinical characteristics, representing the first such investigation to the best of our knowledge, suggests different pathogeneses of these autoimmune diseases in the CNS, and provides significant implications for clinical practice.

» Read more

Plasma exchange in neurological disease.

Bookmark this %label%

Plasma exchange is a highly efficient technique to remove circulating autoantibodies and other humoral factors rapidly from the vascular compartment. It was the first effective acute treatment for peripheral disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia gravis before intravenous immunoglobulin became available. The recent recognition of rapidly progressive severe antibody-mediated central nervous system disorders, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis, has renewed interest in using plasma exchange for their acute treatment also. In this review we explain the principles and technical aspects of plasma exchange, review its current indications, and discuss the implications for its provision in the UK.

» Read more