Preventing Infectious Complications When Treating Non-Malignant Immune-Mediated Hematologic Disorders.

Abstract: Immunosuppressants, targeted antibody therapies, and surgical splenectomy are amongst the treatment choices for immune-mediated non-malignant hematologic disorders, with infection being the most common non-hematological adverse event from these therapies. […]

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The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission: 2019 update: epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant and incurable tuberculosis.

Abstract: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission on drug-resistant tuberculosis was published in 2017, which comprehensively reviewed and provided recommendations on various aspects of the disease. Several key new developments regarding […]

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Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance among asymptomatic people visiting a point of care service for rapid STI screening: a cross-sectional study.

Abstract: Although rapid screening and treatment programmes have been recently implemented to tackle STIs, testing Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) among asymptomatic populations is not currently recommended due to the lack of […]

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Prisons: ignore them at our peril.

People with HIV and HCV are concentrated within criminal justice settings globally, primarily related to criminalization of drug use. This review examines updated prevention and treatment strategies for HIV and HCV within prison with a focus on people who inject drugs and the challenges associated with the provision of these services within prisons and other closed settings and transition to the community.The prevalence of HIV and HCV are several-fold higher in the criminal justice system than within the broader community particularly in regions with high prevalence of injecting drug use, such as Asia, Eastern Europe and North America and where drug use is criminalized. Strategies to optimize management for these infections include routine screening linked to treatment within these settings and medication-assisted treatments for opioid dependence and access to syringe services programs. We build upon the 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines through the lens of the key populations of prisoners. Linkage to treatment postrelease, has been universally dismal, but is improved when linked to medication-assisted therapies like methadone, buprenorphine and overdose management. In many prisons, particularly in low-income and middle-income settings, provision of even basic healthcare including mental healthcare and basic HIV prevention tools remain suboptimal.In order to address HIV and HCV prevention and treatment within criminal justice settings, substantial improvement in the delivery of basic healthcare is needed in many prisons worldwide together with effective screening, treatment and linkage of treatment and prevention services to medication-assisted therapies within prison and linkage to care after release.

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Effect of Universal Testing and Treatment on HIV Incidence – HPTN 071 (PopART).

A universal testing and treatment strategy is a potential approach to reduce the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet previous trial results are inconsistent.In the HPTN 071 (PopART) community-randomized trial conducted from 2013 through 2018, we randomly assigned 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population, approximately 1 million) to group A (combination prevention intervention with universal antiretroviral therapy [ART]), group B (the prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines [universal since 2016]), or group C (standard care). The prevention intervention included home-based HIV testing delivered by community workers, who also supported linkage to HIV care and ART adherence. The primary outcome, HIV incidence between months 12 and 36, was measured in a population cohort of approximately 2000 randomly sampled adults (18 to 44 years of age) per community. Viral suppression (<400 copies of HIV RNA per milliliter) was assessed in all HIV-positive participants at 24 months.The population cohort included 48,301 participants. Baseline HIV prevalence was 21% or 22% in each group. Between months 12 and 36, a total of 553 new HIV infections were observed during 39,702 person-years (1.4 per 100 person-years; women, 1.7; men, 0.8). The adjusted rate ratio for group A as compared with group C was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.18; P?=?0.51) and for group B as compared with group C was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.88; P?=?0.006). The percentage of HIV-positive participants with viral suppression at 24 months was 71.9% in group A, 67.5% in group B, and 60.2% in group C. The estimated percentage of HIV-positive adults in the community who were receiving ART at 36 months was 81% in group A and 80% in group B.A combination prevention intervention with ART provided according to local guidelines resulted in a 30% lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care. The lack of effect with universal ART was unanticipated and not consistent with the data on viral suppression. In this trial setting, universal testing and treatment reduced the population-level incidence of HIV infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 071 [PopArt] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01900977.).

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HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa.

Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with annual population testing and a multidisease, patient-centered strategy could reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and improve community health.We randomly assigned 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya to baseline HIV and multidisease testing and national guideline-restricted ART (control group) or to baseline testing plus annual testing, eligibility for universal ART, and patient-centered care (intervention group). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence of HIV infection at 3 years. Secondary end points included viral suppression, death, tuberculosis, hypertension control, and the change in the annual incidence of HIV infection (which was evaluated in the intervention group only).A total of 150,395 persons were included in the analyses. Population-level viral suppression among 15,399 HIV-infected persons was 42% at baseline and was higher in the intervention group than in the control group at 3 years (79% vs. 68%; relative prevalence, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 1.20). The annual incidence of HIV infection in the intervention group decreased by 32% over 3 years (from 0.43 to 0.31 cases per 100 person-years; relative rate, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.84). However, the 3-year cumulative incidence (704 incident HIV infections) did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control group (0.77% and 0.81%, respectively; relative risk, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17). Among HIV-infected persons, the risk of death by year 3 was 3% in the intervention group and 4% in the control group (0.99 vs. 1.29 deaths per 100 person-years; relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.93). The risk of HIV-associated tuberculosis or death by year 3 among HIV-infected persons was 4% in the intervention group and 5% in the control group (1.19 vs. 1.50 events per 100 person-years; relative risk, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.94). At 3 years, 47% of adults with hypertension in the intervention group and 37% in the control group had hypertension control (relative prevalence, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.39).Universal HIV treatment did not result in a significantly lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care, probably owing to the availability of comprehensive baseline HIV testing and the rapid expansion of ART eligibility in the control group. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; SEARCH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01864603.).

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Management of active tuberculosis in adults with HIV.

Every year, about 1 million people living with HIV worldwide develop tuberculosis. Although the drug regimens used to treat tuberculosis in these patients are the same as those used in HIV-negative patients, cotreatment of tuberculosis with antiretroviral therapy involves challenges including the optimal timing of antiretroviral initiation, drug-drug interactions, drug tolerability, and the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. Furthermore, mortality is high in people with HIV who are diagnosed with tuberculosis during a hospital admission, and in those with tuberculous meningitis. Studies in this field have better characterised these challenges and informed optimal management and guideline revisions. In patients with tuberculosis, antiretroviral therapy improves survival, is well tolerated, and can be adjusted to manage drug-drug interactions with rifampicin. Prednisone is effective in both preventing and treating the paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

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