Prospects for FSH Treatment of Male Infertility.

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Despite the new opportunities provided by assisted reproduction techniques, male infertility treatment is far from being optimized. One possibility, based on pathophysiological evidence, is to stimulate spermatogenesis with gonadotropins.We conducted […]

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Burdens and awareness of adverse self-reported lifestyle factors in men with sub-fertility: a cross-sectional study in 1149 men.

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There are no current pharmacological therapies to improve sperm quality in men with sub-fertility. Reducing the exposure to lifestyle risk factor (LSF) is currently the only intervention for improving sperm […]

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Infertility, gravidity, and risk of diabetes among high-risk women in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

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The extent to which infertility and pregnancy independently increase risk of diabetes and subclinical atherosclerosis is not known.We conducted a secondary analysis of Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the DPP […]

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Fertility and pregnancy in women with hypopituitarism: a systematic literature review.

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Human reproduction is mainly governed from the hypothalamic-adrenal-gonadal (HPG) axis, which controls both ovarian morphology and function. Disturbances in the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones (and their respective endocrine […]

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Fertility in Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

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Abstract: Progress has been made in determining the fertility timeline and potential in adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome; however, medical professionals are currently left without protocols to guide treatment.To evaluate the […]

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Regulation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 by Oocyte-Secreted Factors in Primary Human Granulosa Cells.

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Abstract: Human granulosa cells (hGCs) produce and respond to insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) but whether the oocyte participates in IGF2 regulation in humans is unknown.To determine the role of […]

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Associations between anti-mullerian hormone and cardio-metabolic health in reproductive age women are explained by body mass index.

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Abstract: The relationship between reproductive and cardio-metabolic aging is unclear. It is unknown if the relationship differs across different clinical populations.To determine whether markers of ovarian reserve are associated with […]

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Infertility and Mortality.

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Abstract: Infertility affects 1 in 10 American reproductive-age women. The impact of this disease beyond the reproductive years is largely unknown.To determine the association of infertility history with all-cause and […]

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Fertility preservation in Turner Syndrome: karyotype doesn’t predict ovarian response to stimulation.

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Abstract: Turner syndrome (TS) is responsible for gonadal dysgenesis with high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency. Little is known about fertility preservation (FP) strategies is this population.Data from TS women […]

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Pregnancy and live birth in women with pathogenic LHCGR variants using their own oocytes.

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Abstract: The luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is mainly expressed in gonads and plays important roles in estradiol production, ovulation and luteal formation. Women with pathogenic LHCGR variants suffer from […]

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Lipid Profiling of Peri-implantation Endometrium in Patients with Premature Progesterone Rise in the Late Follicular Phase.

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Abstract: Late follicular phase elevation in serum progesterone (P) during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) negatively affects the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) by contributing to endometrial-embryo asynchrony. There are […]

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Fertility Preservation Outcomes in Adolescent and Young Adult Feminizing Transgender Patients.

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Abstract: Fertility preservation enables patients undergoing gonadotoxic therapies to retain the potential for biological children and now has broader implications in the care of transgender individuals. Multiple medical societies recommend […]

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Reproducibility of the Endometriosis Fertility Index: a prospective inter/intra-rater agreement study.

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To evaluate the reproducibility of the EFI (Endometriosis Fertility Index).Single-cohort prospective observational study.University hospital.Women undergoing laparoscopic resection of any rASRM-stage endometriosis.Details of pre- and per-operative findings were collected into a coded research file. EFI-scoring was performed ‘en-bloc’ by three different raters (expert-1 (C.T.), expert-2 (C.M.), junior (C.B.)). Required sample size: 71. Definitions used for agreement: clinical (scores within same range: 0-4, 5-6, 7-10) and numerical (difference ? 1 EFI-point).Primary outcome: rate of clinical agreement between two experts.expert numerical agreement, clinical and numerical agreement between expert-1 and junior and within expert-1 (intra-observer), agreement of rASRM-score and -stage.A near-to-perfect ‘inter-expert’ clinical agreement rate (1.000 (95% CI 0.956-1.000), p=0.0149) was observed. The numerical agreement between two experts was also high (0.988 (95% CI 0.934-1.000)); similarly high agreement rates were observed for both ‘junior-expert’ comparison (clinical 0 .963 (95% CI 0.897-0.992), numerical 0.988 (95% CI 0.934-1.000) and ‘intra-expert’ comparisons (clinical 0.988 (95% CI 0.934-1.000); numerical 1.000 (95% CI 0.956-1.000)). Reasons for disagreements were different scoring of the least-function score and disagreements in rASRM-scores. The reproducibility of the rASRM-score was clearly inferior to that of the EFI for all comparisons.The EFI can be reproduced reliably by different raters, further supporting its use in daily clinical practice as the principal clinical tool for postoperative fertility counselling/management of women with endometriosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Quantitative differences in TGF-? family members measured in small antral follicle fluids from women with or without PCO.

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Members of the Transforming-Growth-Factor-? (TGF-?) family have been implicated in aberrant follicle development in women with polycystic ovaries (PCO).Are there quantitative differences in the concentrations of TGF-? family members in fluid from small antral follicles (hSAF) from women with or without PCO?& Follicle fluids (FF) were collected from 4-11 mm hSAF obtained from women undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation.FFs from 16 women with PCO (FF=93) and 33 women without PCO (FF=92).Intrafollicular concentrations of Growth-Differentiation-Factor-9 (GDF9), Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH), inhibin-A and -B, total inhibin, activin-A, -B and -AB, follistatin, follistatin-like-3, estradiol, and testosterone.Activin-B concentrations are reported for the first time in hSAF and concentrations were 10 times higher than activin-A and -AB. Activin-B showed significant associations to other growth factors. Concentrations of inhibin-A and -B were significantly lower in FF from women with PCO, especially in hSAF below 8 mm in diameter. AMH concentrations did not differ between the groups in hSAF below 8 mm, however, AMH remained high in hSAF above 8 mm in PCO but decreased in non-PCO women. Estradiol was significantly lower in FF from women with PCO and showed significant associations with AMH. Concentrations of GDF9 are reported for the first time showing significantly higher concentrations in PCO FF of follicles above 6 mm.Altered concentrations of TGF-? family members in hSAF from women with PCO highlight altered growth factor signaling as a potential mechanism for follicle growth arrest.

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Gene expression in granulosa cells from small antral follicles from women with or without polycystic ovaries.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of anovulation. A key feature of PCOS is arrest of follicles at the small-medium sized antral stage.To provide further insight into the mechanism of follicle arrest in PCOS, we profiled; (1) gonadotropin receptors; (2) characteristics of aberrant steroidogenesis, and (3) expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and its receptor in granulosa cells (GCs) from unstimulated, human small antral follicles (hSAFs) and from granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs).GCs from hSAFs were collected at the time of cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation and GLCs collected during oocyte aspiration before IVF/ICSI.hSAF GCs were collected from 31 women (98 follicles), 10 with polycystic ovaries (PCO) and 21 without. GLCs were collected from 6 women with PCOS and 6 controls undergoing IVF.Expression of the following genes: LHCGR, FSHR, AR, INSR, HSD3B2, CYP11A1, CYP19, STAR, AMH, AMHR2, FST, INHBA, INHBB in GCs and GLCs were compared between women with PCO and controls.GCs in hSAFs from PCO women showed higher expression of LHCGR in a subset (20%) of follicles. Expression of FSHR (p<0.05), AR (p<0.05), CYP11A1 (P<0.05) was lower, and expression of CYP19A1 (p<0.05), STAR (p<0.05), HSD3B2 (ns), INHBA (p<0.05) higher in PCO GCs. Gene expression in GL cells differed between women with and without PCOS but also differed from that in GCs.Follicle arrest in PCO is characterised in GCs by differential regulation of key genes involved in follicle growth and function.

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