Physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services augment ground ambulance paediatric airway management in urban areas: a retrospective cohort study.

Abstract: Paediatric intubation is a high-risk procedure for ground emergency medical services (GEMS). Physician-staffed helicopter EMS (PS-HEMS) may bring additional skills, drugs and equipment to the scene including advanced airway […]

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Point-of-care ultrasound compared with conventional radiographic evaluation in children with suspected distal forearm fractures in the Netherlands: a diagnostic accuracy study.

Abstract: Distal forearm fractures are common in children. The reference standard to diagnose these fractures is by conventional radiography, which exposes these patients to harmful radiation. Ultrasound (US) seems to […]

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Cool Running Water First Aid Decreases Skin Grafting Requirements in Pediatric Burns: A Cohort Study of Two Thousand Four Hundred Ninety-five Children.

Abstract: First-aid guidelines recommend the administration of cool running water in the early management of thermal injury. Our objective is to analyze the associations between first aid and skin-grafting requirements […]

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Characterization of In-Flight Medical Events Involving Children on Commercial Airline Flights.

More than 4 billion passengers travel on commercial airline flights yearly. Although in-flight medical events involving adult passengers have been well characterized, data describing those affecting children are lacking. This study seeks to characterize pediatric in-flight medical events and their immediate outcomes, using a worldwide sample.We reviewed the records of all in-flight medical events from January 1, 2015, to October 31, 2016, involving children younger than 19 years treated in consultation with a ground-based medical support center providing medical support to 77 commercial airlines worldwide. We characterized these in-flight medical events and determined factors associated with the need for additional care at destination or aircraft diversion.From a total of 75,587 in-flight medical events, we identified 11,719 (15.5%) involving children. Most in-flight medical events occurred on long-haul flights (76.1%), and 14% involved lap infants. In-flight care was generally provided by crew members only (88.6%), and physician (8.7%) or nurse (2.1%) passenger volunteers. Most in-flight medical events were resolved in flight (82.9%), whereas 16.5% required additional care on landing, and 0.5% led to aircraft diversion. The most common diagnostic categories were nausea or vomiting (33.9%), fever or chills (22.2%), and acute allergic reaction (5.5%). Events involving lap infants, syncope, seizures, burns, dyspnea, blunt trauma, lacerations, or congenital heart disease; those requiring the assistance of a volunteer medical provider; or those requiring the use of oxygen were positively correlated with the need for additional care after disembarkment.Most pediatric in-flight medical events are resolved in flight, and very few lead to aircraft diversion, yet 1 in 6 cases requires additional care.

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Relationship between body temperature and heart rate in adults and children: A local and national study.

A patient’s vital signs are all inextricably interrelated, and together provide critical information regarding hemodynamic and physiological status. Yet, the precise relationship between body temperature (T) and heart rate (HR) in adults remains a fundamental gap in our knowledge.We performed a retrospective secondary analysis of (1) electronic medical records from a large academic center (annual ED census of 110,000) and (2) the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), a large CDC-sponsored weighted sample of U.S. EDs and our own large tertiary care ED, extracting demographic and clinical data including vital signs.We included 8715 local ED visits and approximately 123.3 million estimated national adult ED visits. Mean T was 36.9?°C, and 5.2% of patients had a T over 38?°C. Mean (SD) HR was 93.3?bpm, 28% had a HR over 100?bpm. Males had significantly lower HR than females (coefficient -1.6, 95%CI -2.4 to -0.8), while age was negatively associated with HR (coefficient -0.08, 95%CI -0.10 to -0.06). For national data, an increase of 1?°C in T corresponded to an increase in HR of 7.2?bpm (95%CI 6.2 to 8.3). After adjusting for age and gender, a 1?°C increase in T corresponded to a mean (95%CI) 10.4 (9.5-11.4) and 6.9 (5.9-7.8) increase in HR locally and nationally, respectively.Among adult ED patients nationally, for every increase in T of 1?°C, the HR increases by approximately 7?bpm.

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Pediatric resuscitation: Weight-based packed red blood cell volume is a reliable predictor of mortality.

The definition of massive transfusion (MT) in civilian pediatric trauma patients is not established. In combat-injured pediatric patients, the definition of MT is based on the volume of total blood products transfused. The aim of this study is to define MT in civilian pediatric trauma patients based on a packed red blood cell (PRBC) volume threshold and compare its predictive power to a total blood products volume threshold.An analysis of the pediatric American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was performed (2014-2016) including pediatric trauma patients (4-18 years) who received blood products within 24 hours. Receiver operator characteristic curves for predicting mortality determined the optimal PRBC MT threshold. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) curve analysis was performed to compare the predictive power of a PRBC threshold to a total blood product threshold.A total of 1,495 patients were included. Sensitivity and specificity for 24-hour and in-hospital mortality were optimal at a PRBC threshold of 20 mL/kg. As compared with total blood products threshold, 20 mL/kg PRBCs volume achieved higher discriminatory power for predicting 24-hour (AUROC, 0.803 vs. 0.672; p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (AUROC, 0.815 vs. 0.686, p < 0.001). Patients who received an MT had higher Injury Severity Score (p < 0.001) and were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) and intensive care unit admission (p < 0.001). Overall 24-hour mortality (23.1% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (44.9% vs. 15.8%, p < 0.001) were higher in the MT group. On regression analysis, MT significantly predicted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 3.8 [2.9-4.9, 95% CI]) and 24-hour mortality (odds ratio, 3.3 [2.4-4.7, 95% CI]).The use of a PRBCs MT definition in civilian pediatric patients is a better predictor of mortality compared with total blood products threshold. These results provide a framework for MT protocol development.Prognostic study, level III.

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Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Traumatic Cardiopulmonary Arrest After Traffic Accidents and Termination of Resuscitation.

We describe the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after traffic accidents and validate the termination of resuscitation clinical criteria for adult traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in pediatrics.We analyzed the records of pediatric (?18 years) traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases after traffic accidents in a prospectively collected nationwide database (2012 to 2016). Endpoints were 1-month favorable neurologic outcomes and 1-month survival. Validation of termination of resuscitation criteria, cardiac arrest at the scene, and unsuccessful resuscitation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) greater than 15 minutes was performed based on specificity and positive predictive value.Of the 582 patients who were eligible for analyses, 8 (1.4%) and 20 (3.4%) had 1-month favorable neurologic outcome and survival, respectively. All patients with favorable neurologic outcomes had out-of-hospital return of spontaneous circulation, and the duration of CPR was significantly shorter than for those with unfavorable neurologic outcomes (4 versus 23 minutes; absolute difference -21.9 minutes; 95% confidence interval -36.3 to -7.4 minutes). The duration of out-of-hospital CPR beyond which the possibility of favorable neurologic outcomes and survival diminished to less than 1% was 15 minutes. For predicting unfavorable neurologic outcomes, the termination of resuscitation criteria provided a specificity of 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.00) and a positive predictive value of 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.00).The outcomes of pediatric patients with traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after traffic accidents were as poor as those of adults in previous studies. Out-of-hospital return of spontaneous circulation was a significant indicator of favorable outcomes, and the duration of out-of-hospital CPR beyond which the possibility of favorable neurologic outcomes and survival diminished to less than 1% was 15 minutes. Termination of resuscitation criteria provided an excellent positive predictive value for 1-month unfavorable neurologic outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

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An analysis of the pediatric casualties undergoing massive transfusion in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Existing data on pediatric massive transfusion as part of trauma resuscitation is limited. We report the characteristics of pediatric casualties associated with undergoing massive transfusion at US military treatment facilities during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric subjects admitted to US and Coalition fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016. We stratified subjects by Centers for Disease Control age groupings: <1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-17?years. We defined a massive transfusion as 40?mL/kg of total blood products or more.From January 2007 through January 2016 there were 3439 pediatric casualties within the registry, of which 543 (15.7%) met criteria for receiving a massive transfusion. The median age of children undergoing massive transfusion was 9?years (IQR 5-12), male (73.4%), injured in Afghanistan (69.9%) and injured by explosives (60.4%). Compared to other pediatric casualties, subjects undergoing massive transfusion had higher composite injury severity scores (median 17 versus 9), higher incidence of tachycardia (86.8% versus 70.9%), increased incidence of hypotension (31.2% versus 7.5%), and decreased survival to hospital discharge (82.6% versus 91.6%). Specific to body regions, casualties undergoing massive transfusion more frequently had serious injuries to the head/neck (30.0% versus 22.8%), the thorax (22.8% versus 9.9%), abdomen (26.8% versus 6.9%), the extremities (42.1% versus 14.6%), while less frequently had serious injuries to the skin (5.3% versus 8.4%). All findings were significant.Further research is needed to better translate the lessons learned from pediatric trauma care in the combat setting into the civilian setting in developed countries.3.

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Circumferential Partial-Thickness Burn Caused by Mobile Telephone Charger: A Case Report.

Many children and adolescents have access to portable electronic devices. Although not always the case, these devices are often charged at nighttime, especially while being used in bed. There are increasing media reports of electric current injury from the portable electronic devices’ charging cables, particularly with equipment that is available for lower cost from generic manufacturers. A 19-year-old woman presented to the pediatric emergency department after a burn from her generic iPhone charger. She was lying in bed wearing a chain necklace, with the charger underneath her pillow and plugged into an electrical outlet, when she felt a sudden burning sensation and severe pain around her neck. She was found to have a circumferential partial-thickness burn. She underwent computed tomographic angiogram, whose result was unremarkable. The wound was debrided, and she was then discharged home. She likely sustained an electrical injury from the charger as it came in contact with her necklace, causing a burn. Several companies have investigated the difference in quality and safety of generic versus Apple-brand chargers and have found that the majority of the generic chargers fail basic safety testing, making them a higher risk for electrical injury. As a result of this case, patients and families should be educated about safe use of these devices, especially while they are charging.

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‘The (second) year of first aid’: a 15-month follow-up after a 3-day first aid programme.

First aid education in early childhood can be an effective method to increase the number of trained bystanders. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term effects of a 3-day first aid programme for all primary school-age groups (7-14 years old).This study was a 15-month follow-up of our previous investigation. Five-hundred and twenty-four primary school children were involved in this study. Measurements were made on the following topics: adult basic life support, using an automated external defibrillator (AED), handling an unconscious patient, managing bleeding and calling the ambulance. Data collection was made with a self-made questionnaire and skill test.Knowledge and skills were significantly higher after 15 months than before training (p<0.01). However, these results were significantly worse than immediately and 4 months after training (p<0.01). Based on the questionnaire, more than three-quarters knew the emergency phone number 15 months after training. Approximately two-thirds of the children could use the correct hand position in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the correct compression-ventilation ratio and an AED, and half of them could perform correct recovery position at 15 months. Correct assessment of breathing was similar in a situation game than before training. Self-efficacy improved significantly after training (p<0.01) and remained improved after 4 and 15 months when compared with before training (p<0.01).Participants could remember some aspects of first aid long term. However, knowledge and skills had declined after 15 months, so refresher training would be recommended. Self-efficacy towards first aid improved after training and remained high after 15 months.

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