Intrasacral Meningocele Complicating Caudal Analgesia in a 6-Year-Old Child After 3 Previous Uneventful Caudals: A Case Report.

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A 6-year-old male undergoing bilateral hydrocelectomy was to receive caudal analgesia after induction of general anesthesia. After insertion of the caudal needle, cerebrospinal fluid was unexpectedly aspirated and the caudal […]

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Antepartum and postpartum anemia: a narrative review.

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Antepartum anemia impacts over a third of pregnant women globally and is associated with major maternal and perinatal morbidity, including peripartum transfusion, maternal death, maternal infection, preterm birth, and neurodevelopmental […]

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The effect of saline versus air for cuff inflation on the incidence of high intra-cuff pressure in paediatric MicroCuff® tracheal tubes: a randomised controlled trial.

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The use of cuffed tracheal tubes in paediatric anaesthesia is now common. The use of nitrous oxide in anaesthesia risks excessive tracheal tube cuff pressures, as nitrous oxide can diffuse […]

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Use of a Rigid Bronchoscope as the Sole Prebypass Airway During Pediatric Tracheal Tumor Resection: A Case Report.

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We describe the anesthetic and operative techniques utilized for a tracheal tumor resection in a pediatric patient with 95% tracheal occlusion. In prior tracheal tumor cases that dictated complete resection, […]

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Anesthetic Management of a Child With Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (DYT12-ATP1A3): A Case Report.

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Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism also known as DYT12-ATP1A3 is an extremely rare neurological disease. Patients develop dystonia, bradykinesia, postural instability, dysarthria, and dysphagia. Injection of botulinum toxin is the first-choice treatment for […]

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‘Desire for more analgesic treatment’: pain and patient-reported outcome after paediatric tonsillectomy and appendectomy.

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Insufficiently treated pain after paediatric appendectomy and tonsillectomy is frequent. We aimed to identify variables associated with poor patient-reported outcomes.This analysis derives from the European PAIN OUT infant registry providing […]

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Computed Tomography Scan Evidence of Bronchospasm and Its Resolution During Computed Tomography Coronary Angiogram in a Child With Kawasaki Disease: A Case Report.

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Bronchospasm in children is common; however, due to its sudden nature, radiographic correlation is uncommon. We planned a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram for a 5-year-old child for evaluation of […]

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An Untested and Uncooperative Pediatric Patient Undergoing a Dental Procedure Using a Negative Airflow Tent During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Case Report.

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted the creation of novel techniques to protect patients and health care providers. Simulations showed that disposable oxygen face tents act as a physical […]

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Epidural blood patch for post-dural puncture headaches in adult and paediatric patients with malignancies: a review.

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Many anaesthetists are hesitant to perform epidural blood patch in patients with cancer because of the potential risk of seeding the CNS with malignant cells. Recent evidence suggests that anaesthetists […]

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Determination of ED95 of a single-bolus dose of dexmedetomidine for adequate sedation in children and adolescents with and without obesity.

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With the increasing prevalence of children who are overweight and with obesity, anaesthesiologists must determine the optimal dosing of medications given the altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in this population. We […]

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Positive communication behaviour during handover and team-based clinical performance in critical situations: a simulation randomised controlled trial.

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Positive communication behaviour within anaesthesia teams may decrease stress response and improve clinical performance. We aimed to evaluate the effect of positive communication during medical handover on the subsequent team-based […]

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PROSPECT guideline for elective caesarean section: updated systematic review and procedure-specific postoperative pain management recommendations.

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Caesarean section is associated with moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, which can influence postoperative recovery and patient satisfaction as well as breastfeeding success and mother-child bonding. The aim of this systematic review […]

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Evaluating the ventilatory effect of transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange in apnoeic small children with two different oxygen flow rates: a randomised controlled trial.

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Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange prolongs safe apnoeic oxygenation time in children. In adults, transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange is reported to have a ventilatory effect with PaCO2 […]

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Pediatric Emergency and Critical Care Resources and Infrastructure in Resource-Limited Settings: A Multicountry Survey.

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To describe the infrastructure and resources for pediatric emergency and critical care delivery in resource-limited settings worldwide.Cross-sectional survey with survey items developed through literature review and revised following piloting.The electronic […]

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Prospective clinical validation of the Eleveld propofol pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model in general anaesthesia.

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Target-controlled infusion (TCI) systems incorporating pharmacokinetic (PK) or PK-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models can be used to facilitate drug administration. Existing models were developed using data from select populations, the use of […]

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Prospectively assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in studies of anaesthetic neurotoxicity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Whether exposure to a single general anaesthetic (GA) in early childhood causes long-term neurodevelopmental problems remains unclear.PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception […]

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A systematic review of the association between postpartum depression and neuraxial labor analgesia.

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Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication after childbirth, affecting 10-15% of women. It is associated with serious long-term consequences for the mother and family. Whether or not neuraxial […]

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PROSPECT guideline for tonsillectomy: systematic review and procedure-specific postoperative pain management recommendations.

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Tonsillectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures; however, pain management remains challenging. Procedure-specific efficacy as well as specific risks of treatment options should guide selection of pain […]

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Infant isoflurane exposure affects social behaviours, but does not impair specific cognitive domains in juvenile non-human primates.

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Clinical studies show that children exposed to anaesthetics for short times at young age perform normally on intelligence tests, but display altered social behaviours. In non-human primates (NHPs), infant anaesthesia […]

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General anesthesia for cesarean delivery and childhood neurodevelopmental and perinatal outcomes: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

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In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration expressed concern that neurodevelopment may be negatively affected by anesthesia or sedation exposure in pregnancy or before three years of age. We […]

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Frontal electroencephalogram activity during emergence from general anaesthesia in children with and without emergence delirium.

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Emergence delirium (ED) in children after general anaesthesia causes significant distress in patients, their family members, and clinicians; however, electroencephalogram (EEG) markers predicting ED have not been fully investigated.This prospective, […]

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Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: a clinical trial.

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Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding deaths after injury and childbirth. It is most effective when given early. In many countries, pre-hospital care is provided by people who cannot give […]

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