Body composition in term offspring after maternal gestational diabetes does not predict postnatal hypoglycemia.
Offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of neonatal complications like birth trauma due to macrosomia or postnatal hypoglycemia, as well as long-term metabolic sequelae. Neonatal body composition may be a sensitive marker of metabolic effects on the fetus caused by suboptimal glycemic control during pregnancy.To determine body composition in offspring of mothers with GDM compared to a reference cohort of healthy term neonates and to assess whether increased body fat would be associated with postnatal hypoglycemia.This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study included 311 full-term, singleton infants born between June 2014 and July 2015. Body composition was measured within 96 h of birth using air displacement plethysmography. Results are indicated as median (1st Quartile – 3rd Quartile).Of 311 infants, 40 (12.9%) were born to mothers with GDM. Birth weight standard deviation scores (SDS) (0.24 vs. - 0.07, p = 0.04), fat mass (370 g vs. 333 g, p = 0.02) as well as fat mass/total body mass (BF%; 11.4% vs. 10.8%, p = 0.03) were significantly higher in infants following maternal GDM than in controls. In GDM offspring, anthropometric parameters, fat mass or BF% did not differ between infants with or without postnatal hypoglycemia. In this cohort, SDS for birth weight, fat mass, fat free mass, BF% or postnatal hypoglycemia were not associated with maternal blood glucose levels measured at an oral glucose tolerance test.SDS for birth weight, neonatal fat mass, and BF% were significantly higher in newborns following maternal GDM. In these infants born to mothers with GDM, body composition did not differ between those with or without postnatal hypoglycemia.
Authors: Cornelia Wiechers, Lena S Balles, Sara Kirchhof, Romy Weber, Vanessa Avellina, Jan Pauluschke-Fröhlich, Manfred Hallschmid, Louise Fritsche, Hubert Preißl, Andreas Fritsche, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz