Beneficial effect of 24-month bilateral subthalamic stimulation on quality of sleep in Parkinson’s disease.
Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and sleep symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the long-term effects of STN-DBS on sleep and its relationship with QoL outcome are unclear.In this prospective, observational, multicenter study including 73 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we examined PDSleep Scale (PDSS), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, -activities of daily living, and -complications (SCOPA-A, -B, -C), and levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively, at 5 and 24 months follow-up. Longitudinal changes were analyzed with Friedman-tests or repeated-measures ANOVA, when parametric tests were applicable, and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Post-hoc, visits were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-tests. The magnitude of clinical responses was investigated using effect size.Significant beneficial effects of STN-DBS were observed for PDSS, PDQ-8, SCOPA-A, -B, and -C. All outcomes improved significantly at 5 months with subsequent decrements in gains at 24 months follow-up which were significant for PDSS, PDQ-8, and SCOPA-B. Comparing baseline and 24 months follow-up, we observed significant improvements of PDSS (small effect), SCOPA-A (moderate effect), -C, and LEDD (large effects). PDSS and PDQ-8 improvements correlated significantly at 5 and 24 months follow-up.In this multicenter study with a 24 months follow-up, we report significant sustained improvements after bilateral STN-DBS using a PD-specific sleep scale and a significant relationship between sleep and QoL improvements. This highlights the importance of sleep in holistic assessments of DBS outcomes.