Association of the First 1,000 Days Systems-Change Intervention on Maternal Gestational Weight Gain.
To examine the associations of a clinical and public health systems-change intervention on the prevalence of excess gestational weight gain among high-risk, low-income women.In a quasi-experimental trial, we compared the prevalence of excess gestational weight gain among women before (n=643) and after (n=928) implementation of the First 1,000 Days program in two community health centers in Massachusetts. First 1,000 Days is a systematic program starting in early pregnancy and lasting through the first 24 months of childhood to prevent obesity among mother-child pairs. The program includes enhanced gestational weight gain tracking and counseling, screening for adverse health behaviors and sociocontextual factors, patient navigation and educational materials to support behavior change and social needs, and individualized health coaching for women at high risk for excess gestational weight gain based on their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) or excess first-trimester weight gain. The primary outcome was gestational weight gain greater than the 2009 Institute of Medicine (now known as the National Academy of Medicine) guidelines according to prepregnancy BMI.Among 1,571 women in the analytic sample, mean (SD) age was 30.0 (5.9) years and prepregnancy BMI was 28.1 (6.1); 65.8% of women started pregnancy with BMIs of 25 or higher, and 53.2% were Hispanic. We observed a lower prevalence (55.8-46.4%; unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97), similar to results in a multivariable analysis (adjusted OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.99), of excess gestational weight gain among women with prepregnancy BMIs between 25 and 29.9. Among women who were overweight at the start of pregnancy, the lowest odds of excess gestational weight gain were observed among those with the most interaction with the program’s components. Program enrollment was not associated with reduced excess gestational weight gain among women with prepregnancy BMIs of 30 or higher.Implementation of a systems-change intervention was associated with modest reduction in excess gestational weight gain among women who were overweight but not obese at the start of pregnancy.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03191591.