Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a one sample Mendelian randomization study.

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Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components. However, it is unclear whether a low concentration of vitamin D is the cause or consequence of these health conditions. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association of vitamin D concentrations and its genetic risk scores (GRSs) with MS and its component diseases, such as T2D, in middle-aged and elderly participants from rural eastern China.A subset of 2393 middle-aged and elderly individuals were selected from 70,458 participants of the Nantong Chronic Diseases Study of 2017-2018 in China. We used two 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) synthesis single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (DHCR7-rs12785878 and CYP2R1-rs10741657) and two 25(OH) D metabolism SNPs (GC-rs2282679 and CYP24A1-rs6013897) for creating GRSs, which were used as instrumental variables to assess the effect of genetically lowered 25(OH) D concentrations on MS and T2D based on the Wald ratio. F statistics were used to validate that the four SNPs genetically determined 25(OH) D concentrations.Compared to vitamin D sufficient individuals, individuals with vitamin D insufficiency had an odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval {CI}]) of MS of 1.30 (1.06-1.61) and of T2D of 1.32 (1.08-1.64), individuals with vitamin D deficiency had an ORs (95% CI) of MS of 1.50 (1.24-1.79) and of T2D of 1.47 (1.12-1.80), and those with vitamin D severe deficiency had an ORs (95% CI) of MS of 1.52 (1.29-1.85) and of T2D of 1.54 (1.27-1.85). Mendelian randomization analysis showed a 25-nmol/L decrease in genetically instrumented serum 25(OH) D concentrations using the two synthesis SNPs (DHCR7 and CYP2R1 genes) associated with the risk of T2D and abnormal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with ORs of 1.10 (95%CI: 1.02-1.45) for T2D and 1.14 (95%CI: 1.03-1.43) for DBP.This one sample Mendelian randomization analysis shows genetic evidence for a causal role of lower 25(OH) D concentrations in promoting of T2D and abnormal DBP in middle-aged and elderly participants from rural China.

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Authors: Jing Xiao, Jingyi Lv, Shiyu Wang, Yang Zhou, Lunwen Chen, Juying Lu, Xiaoyi Zhang, Xiaojian Wang, Yunjuan Gu, Qingyun Lu