Association of Maternal-Neonatal Steroids with Early Pregnancy Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Pregnancy Outcomes.
Steroids play an important role in fetal development and parturition. Gestational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect steroidal milieu and pregnancy outcomes, raising the possibility of steroids serving as biomarkers. Most studies have not addressed the impact of EDC mixtures, which are reflective of real life scenarios.Assess the association of maternal and neonatal steroids with pregnancy outcomes and early pregnancy EDC levels.Prospective analysis of mother-infant dyads.University hospital.121 mother-infant dyads.The associations of maternal and neonatal steroidal hormones from 121 dyads with pregnancy outcomes, the associations of first trimester EDCs individually and as mixtures with maternal and neonatal steroids in a sub-set of 56 dyads and the influence of BMI, age and offspring sex in modulating the EDC associations with steroids were determined.(1) Steroid-specific positive or negative associations with pregnancy measures were evident; (2) many maternal first trimester EDCs were negatively associated with estrogens and positively with androgen/estrogen ratios; (3) EDC-steroid associations were influenced by maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fetal sex and (4) EDCs individually and as mixtures showed direct and inverse fetal sex-dependent associations with maternal and neonatal steroids.This proof-of-concept study indicates association of steroids with pregnancy outcomes depending on maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fetal sex, with the effects of EDCs differing when considered individually or as mixtures. These findings suggest that steroidal hormonal measures have potential to serve as biomarkers of impact of EDC exposures and pregnancy outcome.