Association Between the Framingham Risk Score and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are more prevalent among HIV-infected subjects. We examined the associations between carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), conventional CVD risk factors, and HIV-related risk factors among Hispanics with HIV infection. This cross-sectional study involved 96 consecutive HIV patients on stable antiretroviral therapy and without history of CVD in a university-based outpatient clinic who underwent carotid ultrasound evaluation. Increased CIMT was defined as common carotid artery-CIMT values greater than or equal to seventy-fifth percentile for the patient’s age, sex, and race/ethnicity based on CIMT nomograms from large population studies. The sample was comprised of 96 Hispanic Americans aged 39.7 ± 11.9, 89% of whom were men, 64% were on a protease inhibitor, and 11% had increased CIMT (95% confidence intervals 5.9% to 19.6%). In univariable analysis, increased CIMT was significantly associated (p <0.05) with older age, metabolic syndrome, intermediate/high Framingham risk score, HIV infection duration ≥5 years, integrase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors. In multivariable analysis, only Framingham risk score (p = 0.009) was independently associated with increased CIMT. The median common carotid artery-CIMT value was significantly greater in patients with intermediate/high compared with those with low Framingham risk score (0.60 vs 0.49 mm; p <0.001). In conclusion, given the significant association between increased CIMT and Framingham risk score, adherence to prevention guidelines to reduce CVD risk factor burden in this population is strongly recommended.