Aortic stenosis in women.
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valve disorder in an ageing population in western countries, and women, with longer life expectancy, comprise a substantial percentage of elderly patients with AS. Compared with men, women exhibit distinctive characteristics at the level of stenotic valve leaflets and subsequent compensatory responses of the left ventricle to chronic pressure overload, and in clinical presentation, consequences and response to intervention. Randomised controlled trials of transcatheter aortic valve implantation have yielded new evidence of sex differences in both short-term and long-term outcomes after intervention. A comprehensive knowledge of the existing evidence may inform our understanding of gender differences during assessment and treatment of patients with AS. In this paper, we review the available evidence regarding sex differences in AS in terms of symptoms, clinical presentation, anatomical differences and pathophysiological progression, management and outcomes after aortic valve replacement. Implications for further research are suggested.