Antioxidants improve oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in tumor-bearing mice model: role of spinal cord oxidative stress and inflammation.
Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is a common, difficult-to-treat, and dose-limiting side effect associated with Oxaliplatin (OXA) treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of three antioxidants – namely N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid and vitamin E – upon nociceptive parameters and antitumor efficacy of OXA in a tumor-bearing Swiss mice model. Oral treatment with antioxidants inhibited both mechanical and cold allodynia when concomitantly administrated with OXA (preventive protocol), as well as in animals with previously established CIPN (therapeutic protocol). OXA increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and lipoperoxidation, and augmented the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and expression of the astrocytic marker Gfap mRNA in the spinal cord. Antioxidants decreased ROS production and lipoperoxidation, and abolished neuroinflammation in OXA-treated animals. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and inflammasome enzyme caspase-1/11 knockout mice treated with OXA showed reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (but not oxidative stress) in the spinal cord, which were associated with resistance to OXA-induced mechanical allodynia. Lastly, antioxidants affected neither antitumor activity nor hematological toxicity of OXA in vivo. The herein presented results are provocative for further evaluation of antioxidants in clinical management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Perspectives: This study reports preventive and therapeutic efficacy of orally administrated antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic-acid and Vitamin-E) for alleviating oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in tumor-bearing mice. Antioxidants’ anti-nociceptive effects are associated with inhibition of ROS-dependent neuroinflammation, and occur at no detriment of OXA antitumor activity, therefore indicating a translational potential of these compounds.
Authors: Jonathan Paulo Agnes, Vitória Wibbelt Dos Santos, Raquel Nascimento das Neves, Rosângela Mayer Gonçalves, Marina Delgobo, Carolina Saibro Girardi, Débora Denardin Lückemeyer, Marcella de Amorim Ferreira, Sérgio José Macedo Júnior, Samantha Cristiane Lopes, Fernando Spiller, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Rui Daniel Prediger, Juliano Ferreira, Alfeu Zanotto-Filho