An in-memory computing architecture based on two-dimensional semiconductors for multiply-accumulate operations.

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In-memory computing may enable multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations, which are the primary calculations used in artificial intelligence (AI). Performing MAC operations with high capacity in a small area with high energy efficiency remains a challenge. In this work, we propose a circuit architecture that integrates monolayer MoS2 transistors in a two-transistor-one-capacitor (2T-1C) configuration. In this structure, the memory portion is similar to a 1T-1C Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) so that theoretically the cycling endurance and erase/write speed inherit the merits of DRAM. Besides, the ultralow leakage current of the MoS2 transistor enables the storage of multi-level voltages on the capacitor with a long retention time. The electrical characteristics of a single MoS2 transistor also allow analog computation by multiplying the drain voltage by the stored voltage on the capacitor. The sum-of-product is then obtained by converging the currents from multiple 2T-1C units. Based on our experiment results, a neural network is ex-situ trained for image recognition with 90.3% accuracy. In the future, such 2T-1C units can potentially be integrated into three-dimensional (3D) circuits with dense logic and memory layers for low power in-situ training of neural networks in hardware.

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Authors: Yin Wang, Hongwei Tang, Yufeng Xie, Xinyu Chen, Shunli Ma, Zhengzong Sun, Qingqing Sun, Lin Chen, Hao Zhu, Jing Wan, Zihan Xu, David Wei Zhang, Peng Zhou, Wenzhong Bao