An allometric pharmacokinetic model and minimum effective analgesic concentration of fentanyl in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.
We aimed to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in adults and to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC) and minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC) of i.v. fentanyl in patients after major abdominal open surgery.In the pharmacokinetic study, subjects received an intravenous bolus of fentanyl 100 μg during operation, and arterial blood was sampled at pre-set intervals. In addition, data from previously published fentanyl pharmacokinetic studies were incorporated to build a pharmacokinetic model. In the MEAC study, subjects were asked to rate their pain every 10 min using a VAS (0=no pain, 10=most severe pain) in the PACU. The first blood sample was obtained when wound pain was rated as ≥3 at rest or ≥5 during compression. Then, fentanyl 50 μg was administered every 10 min until the pain intensity had decreased to <3 at rest and <5 during compression, at which point the second blood was sampled and the first MEAC of fentanyl was measured. The same procedure was repeated to obtain a third sample (MEC) and a fourth sample (second MEAC).In the population pharmacokinetic study (n=95), the plasma concentration of fentanyl over time was well-described by the three-compartment mammillary model using an allometric expression. The V1, V2, V3, Cl, Q1, and Q2 of a 70 kg subject were 10.1, 26.5, 206 L, 0.704, 2.38, and 1.49 L min-1, respectively. In the MEAC study (n=30), the median (inter-quartile range) MEC and MEAC were 0.72 (0.58-1.05) ng ml-1, and 0.99 (0.76-1.28) ng ml-1, respectively.These results provide a scientific basis for the use of fentanyl for acute postoperative pain management in surgical patients.KCT0003273 (http://cris.nih.go.kr).