Amyloid storm: acute kidney injury and massive proteinuria, rapidly progressing to end-stage kidney disease in AA amyloidosis of familial Mediterranean fever.
Amyloid A nephropathy of FMF usually progresses over many years to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aim to describe an acute condition, termed here ‘amyloid storm’, typically manifesting with a rapid (≤2 weeks) increase in serum creatinine and urine protein, that has never been characterized in FMF amyloidosis.This retrospective analysis features amyloid storm by comparing between FMF amyloidosis patients who have experienced an episode of amyloid storm (study group) and matched patients who have not (control group). The primary outcome was ESRD or death within 1 year from study entry. Featured data were retrieved from hospital files.The study and control groups, each comprising 20 patients, shared most baseline characteristics. However, they differed on the time from FMF onset to reaching serum creatinine of 1.2 mg/dl [26.5 years (s.d. 15.15) vs 41.55 (10.98), P = 0.001] and the time from the onset of proteinuria to study entry [8.8 years (s.d. 6.83) vs 15.75 (13.05), P = 0.04], culminating in younger age at study entry [39.95 years (s.d. 16.81) vs 48.9 (9.98), respectively, P = 0.05] and suggesting an accelerated progression of kidney disease in the study group. Within 1 year from study entry, 16 patients in the study and 3 in the control groups reached the primary endpoint (P = 0.000). The major triggers of amyloid storm were infections, occurring in 17 of 20 patients.Amyloid storm is a complication of FMF amyloidosis, induced by infection and associated with poor prognosis and death.