Adjunctive endovascular balloon fracture fenestration for chronic aortic dissection.
Positive remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for chronic thoracic aortic dissection is variable due to incomplete distal seal and retrograde false lumen perfusion. We assessed the outcomes of adjunctive balloon fracture fenestration (BFF) during TEVAR in patients with chronic aortic dissection complicated by negative remodeling.From June 2013 to January 2016, 49 patients with chronic aortic dissection complicated by aneurysm due to negative remodeling underwent TEVAR with BFF. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed before discharge, at 3 to 6 months, and annually.Intraoperatively, endovascular stent graft expansion was achieved in all patients. There was 1 hospital death due to visceral malperfusion related to acute-on-chronic dissection noted before planned BFF. There were no occurrences of paraplegia, 3 patients had stroke, and 3 had acute renal failure. Survival at 1 year was 91%. Late reintervention for incomplete false lumen exclusion was required in 16 patients and freedom from reintervention was 75% at 1 year. Thirty-six patients (73.5%) had complete false lumen thrombosis through the treated segment. True lumen area increased following TEVAR with BFF and continued to incrementally expand with subsequent aortic remodeling at 1-year follow-up. Thirteen patients had positive remodeling, defined as thrombosis of false lumen, ≥10% decrease in aortic dimension, and ≥10% increase in true lumen diameter. Patients with positive remodeling had an average decrease of 11 mm in maximal aortic diameter at final follow-up.BFF of chronic dissection membrane is a beneficial adjunct to TEVAR during short-term follow-up and may promote positive aortic remodeling and is worthy of further study.