Addressing the Pandemic Training Deficiency: Filling the Void with Simulation in Facial Reconstruction.

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To assess the use of a three-dimensional (3D) printed, multilayer facial flap model for use in trainee education as an alternative method of teaching surgical techniques of facial reconstruction.Cohort study.A 3D printed facial flap simulator was designed from a computed tomography scan and manufactured out of silicone for low-cost, high-fidelity simulation. This simulator was tested by a group of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery trainees at a single institution. The simulator group was compared to a control group who completed an exercise on a traditional paper facial flap exercise. Both groups underwent didactic lectures prior to completing their respective exercises. Pre- and post-exercise Likert scale surveys measuring experience, understanding, effectiveness, and realism were completed by both groups. Central tendency, variability, and confidence intervals were measured to evaluate the outcomes.Trainees completing the facial flap simulator reported a statistically significant (p 

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Authors: Shiayin F Yang, Allison Powell, Sudharsan Srinivasan, Jennifer C Kim, Shan R Baker, Glenn E Green, David A Zopf