Acute Kidney Recovery in Patients Who Underwent Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement (from the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group).
Acute kidney recovery (AKR) is a recently described phenomenon observed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and is more frequent than acute kidney injury (AKI). To determine the incidence and predictors of AKR between surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and TAVR, we examined patients with chronic kidney disease and severe aortic stenosis who underwent SAVR or TAVR procedure between 2007 and 2017; excluding age <65 or >90, dialysis, endocarditis, non-aortic valve stenosis, or patients died within 48-hours postprocedure. AKR was defined as an increase of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >25% and AKI as decrease in eGFR >25% at discharge. Stroke, mortality, major bleeding, transfusion, and length of stay were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine predictors of AKR. There were 750 transcatheter and 1,062 surgical patients and 319 pairs after propensity matching. AKR was observed in 26% TAVR versus 23.2% SAVR, p = 0.062. Highest recovery was in patients with eGFR <30 for both TAVR (33.7%) and SAVR (34.5%) patients. Independent predictors of AKR were ejection fraction <50% (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 2.71, p = 0.042), female gender (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5, p = 0.015), and obesity (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.04-2.3, p = 0.032). Diabetes was a negative predictor of AKR (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84, p = 0.005). AKR was associated with improved secondary clinical outcomes compared with AKI. In conclusion, AKR is a generalizable phenomenon occurring frequently and similarly among transcatheter or surgical aortic valve patients. Diabetes is a negative predictor of AKR, possibly indicative of less reversible kidney disease.