A triple tunnel from the mid-calf to the femoral vein in patient with severe dementia.

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Achieving the ideal exit site is the new philosophy for complicated vascular access patients. Recent publications have described multiple venous access solutions such as tunneling to the scapular region, the chest to the arm, and from the femoral vein to the abdominal and patellar region. In the patients afflicted with delirium, dementia, or confusion even these sites may not be sufficient. The following case study illustrates a triple tunneled femoral catheter on a non-cooperative patient with inoperable endocarditis to be discharged and treated with long term antibiotics.

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Authors: Matthew Ostroff, Nagwa Hafez, Toni Ann Weite